Amble and District
     Local History


Tyne wood engraving

      WHILE almost every town of consequence in the kingdom furnishes its Picture, or Guide, it may afford some surprise that the large commercial town of Newcastle upon Tyne, intimately connected as it is with the British metropolis, has hitherto offered no such assistance to direct the inquiries of the stranger.
     To obviate this deficiency, the Editor was induced, some months ago, to collect materials for the present work. How far he has succeeded in the execution of his design, which was rather to point out than to describe what may be thought worthy attention, he leaves to the judgment of the reader; and, although he has endeavoured to render it as interesting as his plan would allow, he does not presume to think that there are not many inaccuracies, which, through the assistance of his friends, he may be enabled to correct in a future edition.
                       Newcastle, Feb. 1807.

        1 WHEN Aelius Hadrianus made Britain his residence, about the 445th year of the christian era, he gave this town the appellation of Pons Aelii, from its being a Roman station, where a cohort of the Cornovii was then in garrison. This name it retained for nearly two centuries; but, afterwards, from its vicinity to the Roman Wall, it assumed the appellation of Ad Murum, On-the-wall and became a place of such consideration, as to be the residence of a Northumbrian king. Upon the Romans finally quitting the island, the poor inhabitants, having been unpractised 2 in the use of arms for many years, became an easy prey to foreign invaders, and particularly to the Danes and Saxons. The wall, however, afforded some security to the flying natives, and particularly to the Monks, who, during the fifth and sixth centuries, flocked in great numbers to Northumberland, and chiefly to the banks of the Tyne. This town then became the principal place of their residence, whence it obtained the name of Monkchester, by which it was known till the Norman conquest.
      When William got seated on the throne, he built a strong castle in this town. It was called the New Castle to distinguish it from an old one, which was situated a few miles higher up the river. In a short time Newcastle became the general appellation of the town, which name it has retained since that period.
      In the year 1400, it was made a county of itself, under the title of the county of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne and has of course a sheriff of its own, who is elected annually by the corporation.
      It sends two members to parliament. The present representatives are Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart. and C. J. Branding, Esq.
       THE local situation of Newcastle, and its vicinity to the Scots, the most dangerous and hostile of all its enemies, rendered its fortification absolutely necessary. An ancient chronicle, by Hardinge, tells us that in the reign of William Rufus this town was inclosed 3 by a wall. It was built of stone, of great height and thickness; and for ages was undoubtedly of great Strength. This assertion seems to be verified from the consideration, that although the northern counties of England were frequently over-run and depopulated by the Scots, sometimes even to the walls of York, yet during a whole century they were not able to take Newcastle. It had several gates, and was fortitied by towers and square turrets. The wall was surrounded by a fosse or ditch, which in some places is still visible, as on the outside of the wall that surrounds the Carliol Croft. The space which it occupied is yet called the King's Dykes.
     After the building of the wall had been completed, the town was divided into twenty-four wards, according to the number of gates and round towers in it, which were defended by their particular wardens.
     The town wall ran up a steep ascent from the Close-gate to White Friar tower, so termed from its vicinity to the monastery of the Carmelites, or White Friars. There are 214 yards of wall yet very entire from this tower to Postern-gate, lately taken down,
which was one of the strongest and best fortified parts of the wall, being secured by strong gates of oak with iron doors, and a very heavy portcullis. Between the Postern and Newgate are several small towers.
     On account of the inroads of the Scots from the north, Newgate was fortified with uncommon strength. its portcullis still remains. It got its name in consequence of its being built on the site of an old one 4 called Berwick-gate, from its direction towards the frontier town of that name. The north side of this gate is adorned with some rude sculpture, consisting of a statue of King James 1st, three ancient shields of arms, St. George's cross, arms of England, and the Newcastle arms. The common prison is erected over this gate.
     The next gate was at the head of Pilgrim Street, and was also strongly fortified; but it is now removed for the greater convenience of carriages.
     Next follow several small towers and then the site of Pandon-gate. This was secured by strong gates, which were of Roman architecture, and formed part of Severus's wall. It was taken down, by an order of the magistrates, to widen the passage in 1796. From Pandon-gate the wall ascends a steep hill, for about the space of 95 yards, to Carpenter or Wall Knoll tower. This tower was also of Roman construction, and likewise made part of Severus's Wall. From Carpenter tower the wall descends about 232 yards to the site of Sand-gate, which, with part of the adjoining wall, has been taken down. To fortify the town on the south side, the wall ran parallel with the river from Sand-gate, and had many gates opposite the chares or lanes leading into the town, but being inconvenient was removed in 1762.
     The whole extent of the wall was about two miles. It twelve feet high and eight feet thick, and very firmly and compactly built. It yet remains perfect in many places.
    5 THERE are four parishes in this town; St. Nicholas', All Saints', St. John's, and St. Andrew's.
In the year 1781 there were in the four parishes the following numbers of inhabited houses, according to the returns made by the collectors of the window tax.
In St. Nicholas'  Parish - - - - 444
All Saints' Do. - - - - 1146
St. John's Do. - - - - 433
St. Andrew's Do. - - - - 366
TOTAL       2389 houses.
     But in this account the uninhabited houses, as well as those inhabited by the poor, are omitted.
In pursuance of the population act passed in 1801, for taking an account of the inhabitants of Great Britain, the following was the account taken in Newcastle.
Inhabited houses    501, occupied by 1074 families.
Uninhabited houses 44
TOTAL                  545
Males - - - - 2222 } Employed in trade - -1037
Females - - - - 2581 In husbandry - - - - - - - 2
TOTAL - - - - 4803 Independent of trade - - 8
Inhabited houses 1577, occupied by 3795 families.
Uninhabited houses 66
TOTAL               1643
Males - - - - 6319 } Employed in trade - -2995
Females - - - - 8077 In husbandry - - - - - - - 18
TOTAL - - - - 14,396 Independent of trade - - 56
Inhabited houses  619, occupied by 798 families,
Uninhabited houses 11
TOTAL                630
Males - - - - 2037 }  
Females - - - - 2598 In husbandry - - - - - - - 15
TOTAL - - - - 4635 Independent of trade - - - 9
Inhabited houses   446
Uninhabited houses 12
TOTAL                458
Males - - - - 1771 } Employed in trade - - 847
Females - - - - 2689 In husbandry - - - - - - - 36
TOTAL - - - - 4460 Independent of trade - - - 36
  Persons Houses
In St. Nicholas'  4.803 - - - - 545
All Saints' 14,396 - - - - 1643
St. John's 4,635 - - - - 630
St. Andrew's 4,460 - - - - 458
TOTAL 28,294 - - - - 3276
From which it appears, that the increase of houses, in 20 years, had been 887.
Inhabited houses, 1037, occupied by 2099 families.
Uninhabited houses 64
TOTAL               1101
Males - - - - 3974 }  
Females - - - - 4625 Employed in trade - - 1679
TOTAL - - - - 8597 In husbandry - - - - - - - 90
Newcastle ------ 28,294
Gateshead ------ 8,597
Total ---------- 36,891
But in this statement there is no account of the numerous class of seamen which forms a considerable part of the population. Lodgers, travellers, and soldiers are also generally omitted.
THE old streets in Newcastle are in general not very regular, those however of a modern date are planned with more taste. In directing the stranger to the principal ones, we shall begin with the
Formerly, when the town wall ran parallel with the river Tyne, this street on the inside of that barrier was very dark, and in wet weather intolerably dirty: it has, however, been so enlarged and improved by the removal of the wall, that it is now one of the most commodious wharfs in the kingdom. It measures 103 yards in length, and is from 60 to 120 feet in breadth.
The chares, or lanes, leading from the Quay to the higher part of the town, are twenty-one in number. They are dark and narrow. Continuing along the Quay westward, you come to the
     This, from being not at a very remote period a mound of sand, from which it obtained its name, is now the most frequented part of the town. When the tide was low the inhabitants were accustomed to assemble here for their amusement, but when it flowed the water ascended to the foot of the Dean, now called Dean Street. The Sand-Hill is of a triangular form, and is surrounded with shops, the Exchange, 9 &c. In the middle of the Sand-Hill, fronting the Exchange, (which we will describe when we mention public buildings) there was formerly a statue of James II on horse back, cast in copper and placed upon a white marble base, as large as the equestrian statue of Charles I. at Charing Cross, in London.
     In 1688, the celebrated era of the restoration of British liberty, the people of Newcastle, inflamed with the revolutionary spirit of the times, precipitated it into the river. It is said to have been a master piece of art, cast by a Mr William Larson, and highly esteemed by Sir Christ. Wren. It cost the town £800. The political tempest of the revolution subsiding, the magistrates of Newcastle ordered the statue to be taken out of the river; but, instead of replacing it in its former situation, they cast with the metal a set of bells for All Saints' church.
      Passing the Exchange and end of the Bridge, pursue your course by a street named the Close, the narrowness of which occasioned this appellation, which it well deserves.
     This street, being formerly a place of great security, was the residence of several of the most respectable inhabitants. Here stood the house of the Earl of Northumberland, on the side next the river, bounded on the east by Bower-Chare, between Tyne Bridge and the Javel Groop. Not long ago a large gate remained at its entrance, with a large round ball of stone, 10 and hence, probably, it is now called the Round Stone Entry : In 1482, Henry, Earl of Northumberland, demised it to his servant, George Bird, by the name of the Earl's Inn, at the annual rent of 13s. 4d.
     Upon entering the Close, a few yards on the right hand, you come to a flight of very steep steps, called Castle stairs, on both sides of which there is a number of old clothes shops, that constitute the rag fair of the town. Ascending these you reach a postern, where there have formerly been gates and bars of great strength, in defence of the castle.
   Passing the Mansion House, (which will be described afterwards,) and the flint glasshouses, you come to the west end of the Close, which terminates at Skinner Burn.
   Returning, ascend a flight of steps on the left, called Long Stairs. There runs from the top of these stairs, adjacent to the castle wall, a short street named Queen Street, previous to entering which on your left is another of similar dimensions, named Bailiff-gate, which brings you to the foot of
    This street was gradually built after the opulent families had quitted the lower streets, and retired to the higher parts of the town. It was till lately the best street in the town, being wide, clean, and well paved, with a good foot path on each side, and the houses well built. There are three small streets or lanes, which form communications between 11 West-gate-street and the Groat Market, Bigg Market, &c. named Denton Chare, Pudding Chare, and St. John's Lane. They are in general narrow, and, except the Pudding Chare, do not admit carriages. Near the head of West-gate-street, passing the assembly rooms, and a few houses called Fenkle Street, you come to Charlotte Square, which is tolerably spacious and airy, with a grass plot and shrubbery in the centre. The houses are on an elevated site and well built.
   From Fenkle Street, to the right, is a winding street, formerly called Shod Friar Chare, from its vicinity to the Black Friars Monastery, whose fraternity wore shoes, as those of the grey friars went barefoot. Its modern name is Low Friar Chare, in contra-distinction to the Upper, or High Friar Chare, in the vicinity of Newgate. This street contains that excellent institution the public Dispensary.
     Leaving West-gate-street, by Pudding Chare, you enter Bigg Market, which branches downward into three divisions or lesser streets, parallel to each other. That next West-gate-street is called Groat Market; the next Middle Street; that eastward Flesh Market. Bigg Market takes its name from bigg or barley having formerly been sold there. It is a spacious street, above 100 feet wide, including the broad well flagged foot paths on each side.
     Groat Market was so named from its being the place where meal and groats were formerly to be had. It is now the principal daily market for household furniture, and contains the rooms and library of the Literary Society.
     Middle Street is a narrow dark street, and has few good buildings.
      Flesh Market, as its name imports, is the market for butcher-meat, and is one of the best supplied in the North of England. It is held on Saturdays. The magistrates have it in contemplation to remove this market to a more convenient place, as no carriages can pass thro' it on Saturdays, a great inconvenience to the inhabitants of this part of the town.
        Proceeding along Bigg Market, at the head of which is Nungate, you pass to a good street called Newgate Street, in the middle of which stands a small building, formerly a market for milk, called the White Cross, near which is St. Andrew's Church and Newgate Prison. A long winding street, called High Friar Street, with very few buildings on the south side, runs north east to Pilgrim Street.
Passing Newgate, on the left is Gallow-gate, a small street so called as being the way that leads to the place of execution for malefactors.
13    At the lower end of Percy Street, on the west side, a new street is now building called Albion Street, and from that another called Albion Place.
     When you enter the town by Barras Bridge, you meet the two principal streets ; that on your right is Percy Street, already mentioned, the other on your left is Northumberland Street, by far the most spacious and handsome street in the town.
    On the north side of this street are some pleasant ranges of well built modern houses, called Saville Row, Saville Place, Queen's Square, Prince's Street, and Northumberland Place. Northumberland Street now imperceptibly joins
     Though till lately it was separated by a gate and tower, now taken down for the better accommodation of carriages, and by which means the two streets have been much improved. Part of the wall, to which the gate was joined, still serves to shew where Pilgrim Street commences. On the right hand, not far from the head of this street, you will observe the ancient house of the late sir Walter Blackett, built, as it is said, upon the ruins of the Franciscan Monastery. It is a princely building with a large court in front, and is remarkable for having been the place of confinement of king Charles I. He remained a captive 14 here from May 6, 1646, until January 28, 1647, when he was delivered over, to the English Commissioners by the Scots for the sum of £400,000. Pass the end of High Bridge, a narrow street on your right, leading to Flesh Market, and continue on the same side past the end of Mosley Street: you will then observe, on the opposite side, a narrow winding street, called Manor Chare, which terminates at Stock Bridge, mentioned afterwards. At the foot of Pilgrim Street stands All Saint's Church, and keeping to the right hand descend Butcher Bank, a steep street so named from its being almost entirely occupied by butchers, who keep a daily market here.
      Extends from Pilgrim Street to the foot of the Flesh Market, and is a modern built street, very airy and spacious. About the middle of it are the Theatre and Post Office. To open a better communication with West-gate-street, another street is now forming, from the foot of the Flesh Market, to be called Collingwood Street, in compliment to our illustrious townsman, lord Collingwood.
     This is also a new street, running perpendicularly from the centre of Mosley Street.
     It has a gradual descent to the lower streets, and contains some of the handsomest shops in the town. The new butcher market is intended to be made in a line with 15 it, on the opposite side of Mosley Street, and will extend to the High Bridge, a narrow street running parallel to Mosley Street, and joining the head of the Flesh Market to Pilgrim Street, as Mosley Street does the foot of the Flesh Market to the same street. At the foot of Dean Street you enter the
     A narrow inconvenient street, much incommoded by the carts of carriers, which are usually standing here to receive goods for different places. The upper part of this street is so very steep, that vehicles of any sort seldom pass this way.
     It is principally occupied by cheese-mongers and flax-dressers. The Side leads to the Sandhill and Quay, where you set out.
     Near the foot of the Quay is a narrow street, called Broad Chare: this leads you to a small street, called Cowgate, thro' which is Stockbridge, a small area inclosed with houses, remarkable for having been once the residence of King John. At the further end
a steep hill with houses on one side, called Pandon Bank, ascending which, and keeping to the left, you reach Pleasant Row and Shield Field, two ranges of very good houses in an airy and elevated situation, a little out of town.
     This street is at the lower end of the Quay, and is principally inhabited by that useful class of men 16 who are employed in conveying coals in keels from the staiths to the ships, whence they are called keelmen. In this street there is a considerable daily market for milk, and on Saturdays one for old cloaths. The road to North Shields lies through this street.
       During the late scarcities, when vast quantities of corn were brought to Newcastle, the importers, not being able to procure warehouses, set about erecting large granaries, chiefly formed of wood, on the Shields road, adjoining Sandgate: from their number, and the immense quantities of corn stored in them, the people of Sandgate called them New Egypt, which name they still retain. A little further along is St. Ann's Chapel, a chapel of ease belonging to All Saints' Parish. A pleasant range of houses, called
      Is in a direction due east from the chapel, and passing downwards you come to a little rivulet called Ouse-burn, over which is a stone bridge of one arch. Here are many manufactories which shall be mentioned under their proper heads.
     ONE is held on the north side of St. Nicholas' Church in a street named Flesh Market, already described. This market is considered as not inferior to any in the north of England. There is another in the Butcher Bank, which is held every day.
     In Sandgate there is a market on Mondays for the sale of meat which is not disposed of on Saturdays in the Flesh Market : this is principally bought by the poorer class of people, and sometimes for shipping.
     Frauds having been practised by weighing meat with steelyards, the magistrates ordered scales with stamped weights to be used. Meat found by the market inspectors to be putrid, or otherwise in an improper state for use, is seized and publicly burnt.
      The market for poultry is held in the High Bridge on Saturdays, and is generally well supplied. In the same market fresh butter is also sold; the pound of the latter ought to weigh 20 oz. at least.
      During the season considerable quantities of rabbits are brought to Newcastle as far as from Holy Island and other warrens. The markets for them are in the High Bridge and Sandhill.
      This market is on the Sandhill, and is very well supplied with white fish. It is frequently brought here in the spring and early part of the summer from the Yorkshire coast in large boats, navigated by five men, thence denominated five men boats. But the regular supply is from the fishing towns on the coasts of Durham and Northumberland. Oysters are brought here in their season, that is, (according to vulgar opinion,) in all those months that have the letter R in their name, as September, October, &c. The oysters with which Newcastle market is supplied are principally from the Frith of Forth.
    As to salmon, which was formerly the boast of this town, there is a very small quantity of it now caught in the Tyne, compared with former years. The fisheries are still numerous, and the fish yet much esteemed, but from the increase of craft which are continually moving on the river, as well as the pernicious effects of the copperas, lead, and other 'manufactories, established on its banks, the supply is very trifling. The fish so much extolled in London as Newcastle Salmon is principally from the Tweed or the Tay. Brand tells us, Salmon was once so plentiful in Newcastle, that servants made generally an agreement with their masters not to have it more frequently than twice a week.
     The market for vegetables is a daily one, held on the Sandhill, and is well supplied from the neighbourhood around. 19 Besides this market, vegetables are exposed daily for sale at High Bridge end, and in Denton Chare.
     The markets for wheat, rye, and barley, in Pilgrim Street, and for oats in Bigg Market, are held on Saturdays and Tuesdays, and are plentifully supplied with grain. The supply has indeed increased, so much within a few years, that Newcastle corn market is said to be the greatest in the north of England.
ON the west side of the town is a place called the Forth, a neat square plot of ground with a double row of trees on the sides, shading .a gravel walk. This place is appropriated to the use of the inhabit.. ants for purposes of recreation.
      The Leazes, formerly called the Castle Leazes, or Castle Moor, a tract of ground containing 141 acres of rich land, was the gift of King John to the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, and confirmed to them in the reign of King Edward III. Adjoining the Leazes is the Town Moor, the most extensive piece of ground belonging to the corporation: it contains 1037 acres, and was at one period covered with large oak trees. A free burgess or his widow has the privilege of stinting two mulch cows on the Castle Leazes and Town Moor.
      This was formed by the corporation in the year 1756, on the Town Moor, about a mile from town by the north road. It is two miles in circumference, and is kept in very good order. In one part of it there is a hill, which affords spectators an excellent view of the course. Near this there is an elegant stand built of stone, and as there are generally several others of wood erected, this is by way of pre-eminence called the Grand Stand. The Races are held annually about the end of June, and continue six days.
      This ancient building strikes strangers on their approach to Newcastle in every direction. It stands on an eminence, and was probably built with the design both of repelling the incursions of the Scots, and of keeping the inhabitants of the town in a state of subjection.
     This fortress commanded the principal entrance from the south, and was encompassed with two walls, of great strength and height. In the exterior wall were four gates, the ground within which measured three acres and one rood.
 21  It is generally agreed upon by antiquarians that it was built in the reign of the Conqueror, under the immediate direction of his son Robert.
     It was in this castle, in the great hail of the palace, that Baliol, King of Scotland, did homage to Edward I for the crown of his kingdom.
     The mode of warfare being however completely changed by the invention of artillery, this hitherto almost impregnable fortress gradually lost its former consequence, and as a proof of its fallen greatness, this castle, often the temporary residence of kings, and for the defence of which the great barons Heron, Delaval, Clavering, Bolbeck, Bertram of Bothal, Ross, Gaugy, Clifford, and Dilstone, had each a house within its liberties, had so completely lost its pristine grandeur at the beginning of the sixteenth century that it was let to the incorporated company of taylors at the trifling annual rent of £1.
     Formerly, on the top of the hill, overlooking Tyne Bridge, there was a fort, connected with the castle, in the form of a crescent, hence called the Half-moon Battery. A few years ago a range of buildings was erected on its ruins, which from its singular situation has a striking appearance to the stranger entering the town from the south.
     This ancient building is probably coeval with the castle. It is a large structure, and is situated on the east side of the castle-yard. The name Moot or Moat is of Saxon derivation, and signifies an eminence, commonly in the open air.
22 The original intention of the Moot Hall was to assemble the lords and barons of the northern districts upon any particular emergency in feudal times.
    This edifice presents nothing to attract particular attention. It is used at the assizes, which are held annually, as a court of justice for the county of Northumberland.
     Is a strong building. The debtors' apartments are light and well aired, and their situation is rendered more easy and comfortable than in many other places of confinement. The late Sir Walter Blackett generously charged his estate with the expence of supplying Newgate with coals. This tends considerably to alleviate the dreariness of their situation. The philanthropist, Howard, approved much of its cleanliness, its good fires, and the humanity of its keeper but reprobated its confined situation, having no open area for the recreation of the prisoners. There is another prison in the Manor Clare, called the House of Correction. It is principally intended for the temporary confinement of disorderly persons. A few years ago a Penitentiary House was built, adjoining the Correction House, for the imprisoning those sentenced to solitary confinement.
      This structure is situated on the south side of the Sandhill. Before it was erected, there was a small 23 house, which still remains at the east end, called Maison de Dieu, (a House of God) vulgarly called Mason Due. This religious structure was founded by Roger Thornton, one of the earliest and most munificent benefactors Newcastle ever had. He built it in the reign of King Henry IV., for a chaplain to pray for the soul of Agnes, his late wife; for those of his father and mother, both deceased for his own soul while alive, and also when he too should be numbered with the dead.
     This was dedicated to the tutelary Saint, Katherine, and like most other religious institutions, was plundered by Henry VIII. By royal grant, it was vested in the family of Sir Richard Lumley, who, anno 1629, conveyed it to the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle. The Maison de Dieu is now converted into warehouses. A part of it, fronting the Sand-hill, was some years ago taken down and rebuilt. It consists of a row of piazzas, where the salmon and rabbit markets are generally held. Adjoining the Maison de Dieu is the Merchants' Court, or Hall, described afterwards.
     The Exchange likewise owes its origin to the public spirited Roger Thornton. But the building reared under his auspices and patronage was pulled down, and another more large and commodious for business was erected in its place in 1658, towards which Alderman Weymouth, by will, bequeathed £1200. Stimulated by this liberality, the town was at the rest of the charge, which exceeded £10,000.
 24  This Halll is very neatly decorated. The floor is laid with chequered marble, and the ceiling adorned with various paintings. At the west end, which is elevated by a flight of steps, are the benches, where the magistrates sit as justices of the peace, and hold their quarter sessions, courts of conscience, courts of guild, and other meetings of the burgesses. It is also in this court where his majesty's judges of assize annually decide such causes as fall under the jurisdiction of the Town and County of Newcastle, which is distinct from that of Northumberland. Above the seats of the magistrates are the portraits of Charles II. and James II. At the other end of the hall is a handsome painting of his present majesty, presented to the town by Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. one of its representatives in parliament.
     On the north side of this hall is the town chamber, where the mayor transacts the ordinary business of the town and when, also, the common council is held upon public days, the mayor, magistrates, and burgesses, assemble here. At the west end of this chamber is a small room where the ancient records and archives of the town are kept. Formerly the ascent to the hall was by two stair cases without the building, which met at a platform fronting the great entrance, over which was a steeple built, with a statue of Charles II. placed in a niche in the tower; but in the year 1794, this building becoming ruinous, from the steeple having shrunk, it underwent a complete alteration, chiefly in that part which looks towards 25 the Sandhill, and the whole of the front was entirely cased anew with stone.
     This building is in the street called the Close. It is built of brick, with a court before it. Its interior is neat and convenient, corresponding with the hospitality kept up by the mayor, who during the term he remains in office (one year) usually resides here. The Mansion House Was built in 1691, and cost the corporation £6000. The mayor is allowed a state coach, and a handsome barge, in which, attended by the magistrates, and a numerous party of gentlemen, he navigates the river Tyne, as far as the jurisdiction of the corporation extends, annually, on asscension day. The judges of assize, with their attendants, when on the circuit, are also entertained, during the time of their residence here, at the Mansion House.
     Is a large brick building, about the center of the Quay, and contains several commodious apartments for transacting public business. Its regulations are highly creditable to the principal officers.
     Is situated about the centre of Mosley Street, at the foot of the new market. The north mail arrives about nine o'clock in the morning, and proceeds south at ten o'clock. The south mail commonly arrives about  one o'clock, and proceeds north in half an hour. 26 The letters are ready for delivery about an hour and a half after arrival.
     Letters for the south mail must be put into the Post Office before twenty minutes past nine o'clock in the morning, and for the north mail, before the south mail arrives. The office is open from seven o'clock in the morning, till nine in the evening.
     Is a stone building supported by six pillars, and surmounted by the figures of two lions couchant. It stands at the foot of the street called the Side, and got its name from the town scales having been formerly kept here, for the purpose of weighing all butter which was brought into town. It is now a Mar- ket for butter, eggs, milk, &c.
     This Cross stands in Newgate Street, not far from Newgate. It is a low building with a small spire. This is also a market for milk, and one of the places where public proclamations are made.
    Consisting of nine arches, was built in 1779, and cost £30,000. It was widened in 1800, and is three hundred feet long, and now twenty four feet broad.
     The alteration it has undergone has made it not altogether a perfect piece of architecture; but upon the whole it has a pleasing appearance.
      In 1773 the subscription, for building these rooms was opened, to which the corporation contributed £200.
The foundation stone was laid by William Lowes, Esq. and under it a plate, with the following inscription, was deposited:
In an age,
When the polite arts,
By general encouragement and emulation,
Have advanced to a state of perfection
Unknown in any former period;
The first stone of this edifice,
Dedicated to the most elegant recreation,
Was laid by William Lowes, Esq.
On the 16th of May, 1774.
     It is built from a plan of the late Mr William Newton, architect, and cost, when completed, £6701. The front is adorned with a colonnade of six pillars, and two handsome wings. The great room is very handsome, and has been generally considered as ranking next to that at Bath.
    This room is ninety four feet long, thirty six feet broad, and thirty eight feet high. Besides the great room there is a lesser assembly room, a card room, and a subscription coffee room, where the daily prints and periodical publications are taken in for the use of the subscribers.
      The Theatre is situated in Mosley Street, and is a modern structure. It is the property of subscribers, and at present is let to Mr Stephen Kemble. In the interior it is neat, and is very well adapted to its purpose.
     It is open about three months in winter, and generally in summer at the races and assizes.
IN our introductory remarks we observed that from the numbers of religious who repaired to this place, it got the name of Monkchester. We shall slightly notice the remains of some of its convents and priories.
     The remains of this ancient building stands adjacent to a street, which, from its vicinity to the monastery, is still called Low Friar Street, or Chare.
    It was founded by Peter Scot, who was the first Mayor of Newcastle, in the year 1251, and by Sir Nicholas Scott, his son, who was one of the four bailiffs of the town.
    It was suppressed by Henry VIII along with the other monasteries, and the prior and brethren were turned out. Henry made a grant of it to the town of Newcastle, in consideration of their paying £53. 7s. 6d. Together with the house, chapel, and other conveniences, there were two gardens, a field within the West-gate, another field of three acres, and a house called the Gate-house.
      This religious foundation is in West-gate-street. It is supposed to have been founded during the reign of Henry II. Originally, it consisted of a hospital and a chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It owed its existence to a gentleman of the name of Aselack, of Killingworth, who gave, by charter, the ground on which it was built, with other endowments for the maintenance of two friars regular, and a chaplain, to serve God and the poor. Here, also, the wandering pilgrims found refreshment and repose. The inhabitants of Newcastle made an addition to the Hospital of our Lady, for supporting a master and a chaplain, to say divine service to six bede-folk in the almshouse, for lodging poor and way-faring people, and for burying those who happened to die there; and, in order to fence them against the rigours of winter, nine chaldrons of coals were distributed among them. It was abolished by Henry VIII.
     However, this did not prevent its utility, as it was converted into a Royal Grammar School, by Queen Elizabeth, and has long been a nursery for science and useful knowledge.
      It was adjoining to the High Friar Chare, that the House of Grey Friars, or Franciscans, formerly stood.
     They had their first establishment in Newcastle, under the patronage of the opulent family of the Carliols, who were wealthy merchants, in the reign of Henry III.
     This monastery was dissolved in 1539. It then consisted of John Crayforth, its prior, eight friars, and two novices. It was quite destitute of the luxuries found in most of the other convents; and so, they deservedly had the appellation of Friar Mendicants.
     Was situated in Newgate Street. There are still some vestiges of it remaining near what is now called the Nungate.
The historian, Speed, informs us, that it was Henry I. who founded this hospital, for the nuns of Newcastle; others affirm that it was David, king of Scotland, when he resided in Newcastle, anno 1135.
    We are likewise told that Agas, the mother of Margaret, Queen of Scotland, and Christian her sister, after king Malcolm was killed at Alnwick, anno 1086, incapable of enjoying society after that fatal catastrophe, retired here, and took the sacred veil.
Considerable donations and grants were made to this receptacle of fair devotees. The Nuns-moor, or Leases, was the property of these sisters, which, after passing through several hands, was at last vested by the Abbess in the Corporation of Newcastle, with whom it still remains. It was suppressed by Henry VIII.
      This hospital, or priory, was instituted to afford an asylum to persons afflicted with leprosy, and consisted of a master, brethren, and sisters. It was situated near the Barras Bridge, upon a rising ground. The term of Barras, now used, is only a perversion of the real name Barrows, which signifies tumuli, or hillocks, probably the burying places of the patients who died in the hospital. With the non-existence of the disease itself every vestige of this humane institution has been swept away by the hand of time. It was dissolved by Henry VIII. and incorporated with St. Thomas'.
      This was accounted one of the most handsome religious structures of the monastic order in Newcastle. It was situated on the left in going down the Manor Chare, on the ground on which the Freeman's Hospital, Surgeon's Hall, &c. have been built. It was founded (says Wallis) by Lord William Ros, baron of Wark, about the year 1290. Not many years ago, this fabric was levelled with the ground, after it had been suppressed with other monasteries.
     Out-of the ruins of this monastery have been erected, at the charge of the Corporation, into whose possession 32 it fell after the dissolution of the order, a workhouse, for the employment of the poor; a house of correction ; a penitentiary house ; a charity school for the indigent children of All Saints' Parish ; and a dwelling house for the master.
     Upon the arrival of the Carmelites in Monkchester, afterwards Newcastle, they had a situation granted them upon Wall Knoll, where they founded a monastry ; but in process of time it being found inadequate to the accommodation of their increased numbers, they removed to another at White Friar Tower.
     The founder of this house in Newcastle was William de Acton, a burgess and citizen. The house was dedicated to St. Michael, and the place where it stood was called St. Michael's Mount.
     It was dissolved by Henry VIII. and its lands vested in the Corporation of Newcastle, in whose possession they still remain.
      This ancient chapel, now in ruins, gives the name to the place called Jesmond, from Jesus Mount, or Mount of Jesus. There yet remains, one of the small windows of the hospital in the west gable of a public house there. The chapel had an aisle northward, which is now a stable; it is itself become a barn. In the 3d. Edward VI. the town of Newcastle got a grant of the chapel of the blessed Virgin Mary of 33 Jesmond, and some messuages and lands in Jesmond, at the annual rent of 3s. 4d. In the same year, the Mayor and Burgesses granted the hospital of the blessed Virgin Mary of Jesmond, with the lands belonging to it, to Sir John Brandling, his heirs, and assigns, for ever. It is now in the possession of Mrs Coulson of Jesmond. It was to visit this famous chapel that pilgrims flocked from all quarters, and who, in their way thither, lodging in Pilgrim Street, were the cause of its receiving that appellation.
      This noble structure is justly admired by strangers for its beautiful spire, and which, from whatever quarter you approach the town, is a striking object.
      Who the founder of it was, is not distinctly handed down. Some ascribe its existence to Henry I. and others to Osmond, bishop of Salisbury, anno 1091. King Henry I. made over the church of Newcastle, with that of Newburn, to the bishop of Carlisle, who is still the impropriator and patron. The other three churches, although they are termed three distinct parishes, are dependant on St. Nicholas' Church, the vicar receiving dues from them also. In the year 1194, in the reign of king Stephen, Hugh Pudsey, bishop of Durham, assigned to the minister of St. Nicholas' Church all the fruits, annual profits, oblations, and observations, belonging to that church, except the great tythes. The situation of this church is very advantageous, being elevated and almost in the centre of the town. 34 Its length is eighty yards, and its steeple sixty four yards high. From the square tower, or main body of the steeple, there are two bold stone arches, supporting a large and beautiful one, on which rises a lofty spire. The interior has within a few years been fitted up anew, in the manner of a cathedral, and is extremely neat. There are a few very handsome monuments placed in it.
      Is situated at the Bridge-end, and is a chapel of ease to St. Nicholas. It is dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, or St. Thomas the martyr. It has nothing striking in its structure or ornaments. Here public duty is performed on Sundays, and prayers are read on certain days in the week.
      About two miles north from Newcastle, is also a chapel of ease to St. Nicholas. It is spoken of at so remote a period as that of Henry II. It has lately been rebuilt, and is a very neat structure.
     Is in ruins, and little remains but a few grave stones inscribed with names in the chapel yard. It is near the last mentioned.
     It lies about eight miles nearly north from Newcastle, and is dedicated, like the mother church, to St. Nicholas. 35 It is a perpetual curacy. The patrons are, by turns, Sir Matthew White Ridley, Baronet, and William Lawson, Esquire
     This beautiful church stands at the foot of Pilgrim Street. It is of a circular form, and is built of hewn stone. The front is toward the south, and has a handsome colonnade of five columns of the Ionic order, supporting a fine portico. A lofty spire rises above the front, which contains a clock, and a good set of bells.
     It is considered a chief ornament among the modern improvements in Newcastle. It was built under the direction of Mr Stephenson, architect, was consecrated anno 1789, and cost the parish £27,000.
     The old church stood a little eastward of the present one. Its ruinous state occasioned its being taken down.
     This old church stands about the middle of West-gate-street. It is a plain building with a square tower, and is very neatly fitted up within.
  The celebrated Cunningham, the pastoral poet, was interred in this church-yard. On his monument is the following inscription:

 Here lie the remains of John Cuningham.
Of his excellence,
As a pastoral poet,
His works will remain a monument
for ages,
After this temporary tribute of esteem
is in the dust forgotten.
He died September 18, 1773, aged 44.
He culled the essence of simplicity,
and arranged it in pastoral verse.
     Is situated near Newgate, on the west side of the street. The style of the architecture seems to indicate that it is of great antiquity. This church had three chantries founded in it, in honour of St. Mary the Blessed Virgin, the Holy Trinity, and St. Thomas.
     Formerly stood on the north side of the Barrasbridge. It has been long in ruins.
     Mentioned before, formerly was a chapel of ease to St. Andrew's parish, but, like the former, has also been long in a ruined state.
     In Newcastle are numerous. There is a handsome chapel of the calvinistic baptist persuasion on the Toothill Stairs, near the Close. It is a neat modern building of brick. 37 Hanover Square Meeting House is also a neat building for unitarian dissenters. The vestry contains a good collection of books for the use of the congregation.
     Adjoining the Castle, at the end of Bailiff-gate, is a presbyterian Meeting House. In the Postern are two Meeting Houses; one tolerably handsome, the minister of which is of Lady Huntingdon's sect; the other, called the old Postern Meeting, is for a part of the seceding congregation, separated from another of the same persuasion in the Close.
     The Groat Market, High Bridge, Silver Street, Wall Knoll, and Sally Port, have also each a presbyterian Meeting House. Near the opening of the Town Wall, below the Carpenter Tower, is a small Meeting House of the followers of Mr Glass.
     There are three methodist chapels; one in Northumberland Street, one in Manor Clare, and another on the New Road, opposite to New Egypt.
     In Pilgrim Street, nearly opposite to Mosley Street, is a Meeting House for quakers.
     There are two Roman Catholic Chapels; one is in Pilgrim Street, opposite the High Bridge; the other is at the foot of West-gate-street.
     In the whole there are six congregations of presbyterians, properly so called, united in doctrine, discipline and communion with the church of Scotland, one of burghers, and two of antiburghers seceding from that church, a respectable body of unitarians, a congregation of independents, another of calvinist baptists, two called killianities, two Romish chapels, a respectable body of quakers, and a small body of glassites. 38 All these live together very peaceably, and while they respectively enjoy liberty of conscience themselves, they do not endeavour to disturb that of their christian neighbours.
      Dissenters, especially such as have come from Scotland, account the permission to bury their dead, in a manner they consider the most proper, a very particular privilege. This burying ground is at the Ballast Hills, near to the Glasshouses. Here by far the greatest part of the dissenters bury their dead, as also many of the poor of the established church. It is probable that there being no expense for service incurred, is the reason of their so doing. It is one of the largest pieces of ground devoted to this melancholy purpose perhaps to be met with, Bunhill fields burying ground in London alone excepted. There are from twelve to eighteen, and sometimes even double that number of corpses interred here weekly.
     The expense of interment is only 1s. or 1s. 6d. at most, for the grave ; and an exact register is kept. The corporation receives 8d. and the sexton the overplus.
      THE well endowed charity school of St. Nicholas owes its existence to the pious benevolence of a worthy lady, Mrs Eleanor Allan, of Newcastle, who founded it in 1705. To support this charity, Mrs Allan assigned a farm at Wall's End, of the yearly value of £61 to the trustees, for setting up a school for teaching forty boys and twenty girls, in this parish, or in the chapelry of St. John's. The boys are taught reading, writing, and accounts, and afterwards are put to some trade; and have each £2 given them for that purpose, with a bible and prayer book, the Whole Duty of Man, and Lewis's Explanation of the Catechism.
     The girls are taught to read, write, sew, and knit, and then are apprenticed out, or put to service ; and have, also each 20s. allowed them, with the same books as the boys. The master's salary is £25 per annum, and 20s. for coals. That of the mistress for the girls is £10 per annum, and 10s. for coals. The parishioners were so well satisfied with the diligence of the teachers and the progress of the scholars, that they entered into an annual subscription to clothe the children of the school; and numerous liberal accessions have been made to the revenues of their institution.
     Dr. Tomlinson informs us that the founder of this charity school was Mr John Ord, but who had bound him by promise not to disclose the secret till after his, (Mr Ord's) decease, which the doctor sacredly observed. The institution is for forty four boys, to support which Mr Ord bequeathed a large field, without Pilgrim Street Gate.
    Mrs Allgood bequeathed £100 in 1707, to be put out at interest, for the benefit of St. John's Charity School; and an annual subscription of £33 is also raised for its maintenance. A charity sermon is also preached annually for the same benevolent purpose. The boys are new clothed once, and have shoes and stockings twice a year. The school-house was built and is kept in repair by the corporation. The master's salary is £25 per annum, £2 for teaching the boys church music, and 16s. a year for paper, pens, and ink.
     Among other donations, sixteen of the companies of the burgesses give annually £1 each.
      Sir Walter Blackett, Bart. was the founder of this school. It is for thirty boys, and was first opened in 1708. In 1719, Sir Wm. Blackett, Bart. son of the founder, completed the institution, by bequeathing a sum for clothing the boys. The master's salary is £20 the patrons are the vicar, and the church wardens of the parish.
    41 In 1792 a commodious airy school house was built for girls, by subscription, without Newgate, and a gallery was at the same time erected for them in the south porch of the church. They are taught all the useful branches of female education.
     This valuable foundation was raised by a voluntary subscription in 1709. It is for forty one boys and seventeen girls. The scholars of both sexes are taught the most useful branches of education.
    The subscribers are very numerous, and many of the donations liberal.
      The school room is situated at the east end of Sandgate, near the Chapel, where is also a house for the master.
     Have been opened by the four parishes of this town, in which a great number of children are instructed in reading. Besides these there are several others, which have been instituted by the dissenting congregations.
      THIS school, which has long ranked among the first places for founding youth in classical learning, was at first situated on the north east side of St. Nicholas' Church. 42 Queen Elizabeth constituted it a royal foundation by charter ; in consequence of which it was removed to the capacious hospital of St. Mary, after it had been stripped of its religious revenues by her royal father, Henry VIII.
She enacted that the foundation be styled The Free Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth, the master and scholars whereof are to become a body corporate in law, with perpetual succession. To have a common seal, and a legal capacity of purchasing and holding lands to themselves and successors in fee simple, or for a term of years, provided they exceeded not the sum of £40. The Mayor and six Aldermen are appointed the patrons of this school, with the power of electing a master and usher, whose offices are held at their pleasure, and on every vacancy, or removal by death, are to be filled up by them.
    To cherish this excellent institution, Lord Crewe left a legacy for scholars taught in Newcastle grammar school, to enable them to be sent to any of the universities of England.
     Dr. Smith also bequeathed the interest of £800 to Emanuel College, in Cambridge; half of which is for the maintenance of a scholar either from Durham or Newcastle grammar school. Other legacies have been left for the same purpose.
     The learned bishop Ridley, the martyr, Dr. Akenside, Lord Eldon, Sir Wm. Scott, and several other distinguished characters, received the first principles of their education at this school.
There are several schools for boys and girls, and some highly respectable boarding schools for young ladies in this town. 43
     This society, held in a spacious room in the Groat Market, is composed of the following classes, viz. 1. Ordinary members, who subscribe £1. 1s. annually.  2. Honorary members, who reside at a distance, and correspond with the society, of whom no subscription is required. 3. Honorary members with the privileges of ordinary ones. Only four of this description are allowed at one time. The intention of the society in instituting this last class was for the laudable purpose of encouraging the exertions of deserving persons, whose circumstances render it inconvenient to incur the expense of the ordinary contribution. 4. A fourth class was added to the former, anno 1799, under the denomination of reading members, who do not attend the meetings of the society, but have the use of the library. Ladies only are admissible into this last class. Their annual subscription is the same with that of ordinary members.
     The society is governed by a president, four vice presidents, two secretaries, and a committee of eight; all annually chosen out of the class of ordinary members. To these are intrusted the expenditure of the funds; the ordering and purchasing books of the library ; and the domestic economy of the institution. 44 The general meetings of the society are held on the evening of the first Tuesday of every month. The subjects for their investigation comprehend mathematics, natural philosophy, history, chemistry, polite literature, antiquities, biography, questions of general law and polity, commerce and the arts. Questions and discussions on religion, and the politics of the day, are strictly prohibited by an express law.
      A large and valuable library, consisting of a great number of the choicest books is already collected, and is constantly increasing in number and value, from the ample funds applied to the purchase of books, as well as from numerous donations, by opulent members and authors.
      The librarian attends every day, (Sundays excepted) from ten o'clock in the morning till nine in the evening, during which time books may be either read in the room or taken out to read. In an adjacent room, adapted for the reception of curiosities, pieces of antiquity, a very considerable collection of minerals, plants, and other curiosities of nature and art, from different quarters of the globe, are already deposited.
      This was established in 1802, and four courses have already been delivered by the Rev. Wm. Turner, who is appointed lecturer to this institution. 45 They have been delivered in the room of the Literary Society, and illustrated by the extensive apparatus of the late Dr. Garnett, which was purchased of his executors for the use of the institution. The annual subscription to the lectures is £2. 2s. except to members of the Literary Society and ladies, who only pay £1. 2s. Tickets for life are £10. 10s. to members of the Literary Society, and £21. to those who are not. Corporate bodies, making donations, may have transferable tickets, in proportion to their donations.
      The Rev. Dr Tomlinson, rector of Whickham, near this Town, left by will a very valuable collection of books. This was bequeathed with the laudable design of diffusing knowledge amongst the inhabitants of Newcastle. That the bequest might not be misapplied, a librarian was appointed, with a fixed salary of £25 per annum. A rent charge of £5 yearly, was also purchased by the worthy divine, for the purpose of increasing this valuable collection, with the most useful works. Besides these, there are the books of an old library, the donation of a few others, kept in a separate room. As the old room where the books were first deposited, was dark, damp, and injurious to these valuable works, Sir Walter Blackett, at his own expense, erected a handsome building to contain the books, adjoining to the south wall of St. Nicholas' Church. It is built of fine hewn stone, neatly ornamented, and is very convenient for the purpose. The under part is used for the vestry, and above is the library.
      We have already mentioned, in describing the New Assembly Rooms, that it contains a subscription news room; here, besides the public journals, a considerable number of books, principally illustrative of public transactions and events, are purchased and preserved, and will probably one day form a very valuable collection of the most popular productions, upon the various and interesting topics of discussion, which from time to time have agitated the public mind.
     The use of these is confined to the subscribers to the Assembly Rooms, and strangers introduced by them.
In the Bigg Market is a Circulating Library, the property of Mr Sands. It forms one of the best collections of books, in every branch of science and literature, out of the metropolis.
THE Manors, formerly the site of the monastery of Austin Friars, contains now several charitable foundations, particularly
Now called Freemen's Hospital
      In 1683, it was incorporated by the name of the Master, Brethren, and Sisters, of the Hospital of the Holy Jesus, founded in the Manors, in the Town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne, at the charges of the Mayor and Burgesses of that town, for the support, for ever, of poor, impotent people, being Freemen and Freemen's widows, or their sons and daughters, that had never been married.
      The Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of Newcastle, for the time being, were appointed visitors, and to give rules and laws to this Hospital.
      The benefactions for its support are liberal and ample.
      This humane institution was for a governess, and five sisters, to be widows of protestant clergymen, merchants, and freemen of Newcastle, endowed by the charity of Mrs Ann Davison, widow of Mr Benjamin Davison, merchant. It was built by the Corporation near the former one, in 1725.
      Was instituted for six unmarried men, poor and decayed burgesses of Newcastle, anno 1754. The worthy Bart. on the receipts of a bond given him by the Corporation, deposited £1200 for that purpose.
      Thomas Davison, Esq. of Ferry-Hill, in the county of Durham, and his sisters, founded this hospital for six unmarried women, under the same roof with those intended for the two former hospitals of Mrs Ann Davison, and Sir Walter Blackett, Bart.
      The Freemen of the Trinity House of this town, erected, in 1724, apartments for twelve widows of poor brethren. Each is allowed 12s. per month, a gown and petticoat every two years, and coals. They have also medical advice, when necessary.
      The Trinity House also provides habitations for eight poor brethren, and allows them support in like manner. It also supports some in their own houses.
      This hospital, for the accommodation of keelmen and their widows, is situated on an eminence a little east-ward of the Carpenter's Tower, on the Garth-heads, behind Sandgate. It is a square building, and contains about 52 chambers for the accommodation of aged members of both sexes.
     The room in the south front, is large and capacious, for the purpose of general meetings.
     On their general annual meeting day the keelmen walk in procession through the principal streets of the town, in decent plain dresses, attended with music, playing their favorite air of " Weel may the Keel row:'
     This Hospital was built by each keelman paying one penny a tide. It is probably the only one in the kingdom built by the poor for the support of themselves.
    49 A few keelmen, with a laudable perseverance, set about drawing up a scheme for a permanent resource for the wants and necessities of their members. This scheme obtaining the approbation of the magistrates, and the coal owners, an application was made to Parliament, and an act obtained, sanctioning this scheme, with some judicious improvements. The bye-laws, which are subjoined to the act, display so much wisdom and humanity, that the resources for the sick and infirm of this body promise to be of long duration.
By these laws, weekly allowances to sick or superanuated members are as follow, viz.:
  £.  s.  d.
To those who are disabled by temporary lameness or sickness 0  5  0
To those who are superanuated or disabled by age 0  3  3
To widows without children 0  1  6
Widows having two children 0  2  0
Widows having more than two children 0  2  6
      Superanuated members, unable to work at the keels, are allowed to follow any other employment; but if they can hereby earn at the rate of 4s. or upwards, per week, their allowance from the fund is then reduced according to the following table:
If earnings amount to To receive from the fund
4s. p. week, & under .5s. 2s. 6d. p. week.
5s. p. week, & under 6s.  2s. p. week.
6s. p. week, & under 7s. 1 s. p. week.
7s. p. week, & under 8s. Nothing from the fund.
If 8s. or more, to pay 6d. p. week, towards the fund.
50 The late Alderman Simpson, of Newcastle, gave £100. to this hospital. This act of generosity is gratefully acknowledged in an inscription on the south front of the hospital.
      In the societies of this kind in Newcastle, a sick or disabled member is generally allowed 6s. and some 7s. per week, during a certain time, after which the allowance is reduced to one half of that sum, till the member, by a lingering disorder, or disability to work, has exhausted all his sick money. He then becomes a pensioner for life, and commonly receives 2s. 6d. or 3s. per week. The funeral expenses are about 40s. or 50s. or at most £3. The legacy to the widows, is from £61, to £10. By this, along with the parish allowance (commonly to each child) an industrious widow is enabled to begin in some small way of dealing, and so provide for her fatherless family.
     There are between thirty and forty of these societies of men in this town, which together, consist not of less than five thousand members. It is supposed there are nearly the same number of benefit societies of women, and probably about two thousand members in all.
     These all being provided for against sickness and want, at their own charge, are undoubtedly a great relief to the respective parishes, where they reside.
      This Fund was to have consisted of forty members residing in the Counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and the Towns of Newcastle upon Tyne, and Berwick upon Tweed.
     The terms of admission were, for the first class, the minister to pay £2 and his congregation £2 more ; for the second class £3; and for the third £2 annually. The widows of the first class to receive £20 annually; of the second, £15; of the third, £12 annually. They have about twenty widows on the books, who are regularly paid their annuities, by two half-yearly payments. They have been associated above forty years, and their present capital is about £5000. This association used to have their annual meetings at Newcastle. They now hold them alternately, at Newcastle, Morpeth, and Alnwick.
    For many years they received from the Regiurn Donum in London, £40 annually, which greatly assisted their fund; but the distribution of the royal bounty falling into other hands, this association was deprived of any further donation from the fund.
      This has occasioned them to make several material alterations in their original statutes and regulations.
      Dissenting ministers of every profession are admisible, without any discrimination in religious opinions, or mode of church government. Harmony and social friendship reign at their annual meetings, in a friendly, exemplary manner. 52 Their clerk, treasurer, and trustees, receive no remuneration for their services, cheerfully offering them for the general good.
     The late Dr. Henry of Berwick, afterwards of Edinburgh, drew up a well digested scheme of statutes and regulations, which they still carefully observe in the application of the rates and collections annually made by the respective ministers of their congregations
      Mr Brand, in his History of Newcastle, vol. 2, p. 547, says, " November 19, 1774, was held, at Newcastle upon Tyne, the first meeting of the Association of School-masters in the north of England. The object of the society in this institution, was the relief of their distressed and aged brethren, and their widows, and orphans." He adds in a note, see a pamphlet entitled " An Address to the Public in behalf of the Association among Protestant School-masters," &c. These regulations are upon a more extensive scale than those of the other benefit societies of Newcastle, as they do not limit their charity to one single donation, called a legacy, but they settle upon the widows of a deceased brother, £10, £12, or £15 per annum ; and as their fund accumulates it is expected that widows of the first class will have an annuity of £20.
      His Grace the Duke of Northumberland thought so well of the School-masters' Association, that he became its patron and the Rev. Mr Farrer, president. To the credit of this latter gentleman, it deserves to be mentioned, that to his abilities, and uniform attention to the interests, of this institution, it is greatly indebted for its present flourishing state. By Mr Farrer's exertions Lord Lonsdale, and many other respectable gentlemen have subscribed annual donations.
For the Counties of Newcastle, Durham, and Northumberland.
      In describing the Newcastle Infirmary, we shall give a slight view of it in its original state ; with a more general delineation of the admirable improvements which have recently been made.
     In the beginning of the year 1751, the members of a respectable club in Newcastle, resolved, on account of the death of some, and the advancing age of others of their body, to discontinue their stated meetings but, previous to their so doing, to leave some permanent memorial of the society having existed, by the proposal of some project of public utility. On the day appointed for this benevolent purpose, a late eminent surgeon, Mr Richard Lambert, then a young man, suggested the establishment of an Infirmary ; and this appearing more beneficial than any other project which had been presented, met with the unanimous concurrence of the meeting. In conequence, a letter was inserted in the Newcastle papers, strongly recommending a subscription for effecting so desirable an object. A subscription was accordingly opened on the 9th of February, 1751, and soon attracted the notice of the most distinguished characters.
   54 The Infirmary stands in an open, dry, elevated situation, at a short distance from the south-west of the town, and the river Tyne. The building is of stone, and presents a plain but elegant front to the south; from the eastern extremity, there runs northward a spacious wing, fronting the east, two stories high. The principal, or south front, contains four stories, viz. the basement, the ground floor, the chamber story, and the attic.
      This old edifice, though beautiful in its exterior, had all the faults and defects of the old hospitals. Respecting the wards, some were too large, and all too much crowded. The galleries in the wing, which ought to have acted as ventilators, were shut up at one end, and thus contaminated the air of the whole house. One room only was provided for a single patient, and it was allotted for those alone who had undergone the operation of lithotomy. The bedsteads were constructed of wood, and consequently were prolific sources of vermin. The physicians and surgeons had no proper accommodations; there being neither waiting-hall for the patients, nor a room sufficiently large for a dispensary.
      To remedy these evils, so injurious to the health and speedy recovery of the patients, it was resolved at a special court, held, August 4, 1801, " That a plan for the extension of the Infirmary, should be carried into execution; and that the proposal of the committee, for remedying the defects of the old Infirmary, should also be adopted, and carried into effect, as soon as the new building should be completed, and made fit for the reception of patients.
       A subscription was accordingly opened, and the sums immediately subscribed amounted to £1600. His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, was one of the principal contributors, and expressed his high opinion of the utility of the Infirmary, and his wish that the proposed improvements might be carried into effect.
     On the 23d of September, the foundation stone of the new building was laid by Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. M.P. as representative, upon this occasion, of his Grace the Duke of Northumberland.
      In the construction of the New Building, the first object of attention was free ventilation; and the second, not to deform the elegant appearance of the old Infirmary.
      The new building is much higher than the old one. It is constructed of brick, to give it the appearance of a separate house. It has only one row of wards. Its galleries are in a direct line with the front galleries of the old Infirmary, by which a thorough ventilation of both is secured.
      The old and new buildings, being now fitted up, are capable of accommodating, upon an emergency, one hundred and twenty-six patients. They contain in all sixteen wards, and fourteen rooms for single patients. 56
      This noble institution is attended by four physicians, and four surgeons. Indigent persons, maimed by accident, are taken in at all hours, without previous recommendations.
     By the late report, it appears, that thirty-four thousand, nine hundred and thirty-seven patients have been cured, since its commencement, anno 1751.
      This valuable foundation is in Low Friar Street. It is adorned with a neat front, on which is inscribed the date of the commencement of the institution.
      The objects of the Dispensary are such poor inhabitants as cannot receive proper relief from the Newcastle Infirmary, either on account of the nature of their diseases, or when unsafe for them to wait till the day of regular admission.
      From the commencement of the Dispensary in 1777, to the 31st of August, 1805, forty-five thousand eight hundred and ninety seven patients had been admitted, of whom forty-two thousand five hundred and eighty, labouring under various diseases, had been cured.
      From the commencement of the vaccine inoculation, or by the cow-pox, in the spring of 1801, to Michaelmas, 1805, twenty-five thousand and thirteen children had been inoculated, of whom twenty-five thousand and nine had the disease, and four did not take the infection.
     57 We shall close our account of the Newcastle Dispensary, by observing, that in the preservative department, the governors have displayed their philanthropy, in providing and placing in proper houses, the necessary instruments, and medicines, for restoring suspended animation. The faculty in Newcastle, Shields, Howdon Dock, Winlaton, Swalwell, and Newburn, are all medical assistants; and such plain directions have been published, that any active spectator may render essential assistance to a fellow-creature on the first emergency.
For the Cure and Prevention of Contagious Fever
in Newcastle and Gateshead.

      This benevolent institution, under the general title of the House of Recovery, was opened for the reception of patients, on the 9th of October, 1804 ; and the governors at the same time ordered the plan of the institution to be published and circulated.
     The object of this charity is to remove into the House of Recovery the persons first attacked by fever, who live in crowded, ill-aired habitations ; and who are therefore liable to communicate the infection to a numerous family, or to their neighbours.
     When the attending physicians shall judge the removal of the patient from his habitation unnecessary, he is empowered to give an order for such articles of clothing as are indispensably necessary, on account of the poverty of the patient. And when the fever shall have ceased, the apartment is to be cleansed and washed, with quick lime; and the infected bedclothes, and apparel, purified or destroyed.
     58 The institution is attended by the physicians, surgeons, and apothecary of the Dispensary; from which the patients are also provided with medicine; but all other expenses are to be defrayed by the institution.
    The House of Recovery is pleasantly situated without the Town Walls, a little north front West-gate, with a road of communication from the Dispensary to Low Friar Street.
     The first subscription towards the building amounted to £1438 2s. and the annual subscriptions to £220 10s.
     This institution is under the direction of a patron, a president, four vice presidents, a treasurer, a secretary, a committee of twenty-four, and the medical officers of the Dispensary.
     An address to the public was circulated, by order of the general meeting, held at the Dispensary, October 9th, 1804; and we are happy to add, parochial aid has been promised by the parishes in Newcastle, and that of Gateshead.
In Rosemary Lane, for poor Married Women.
      This benevolent institution was first opened in Rosemary Lane, October 1st, 1760. The hospital stands in a very retired situation, on the east side of West-gate-street. 59 Over the front door is this inscription ; " Licensed for the public reception of pregnant woman, pursuant to an act of parliament passed in the 13th year of the reign of Geo. III."
     On the inner side of the main door is an inscription over the charity box, "Because there was no room for her in the Inn."
     The establishment consists of a president, four vice presidents, a treasurer, a physician, a matron and midwife, a chaplain, a surgeon, and twelve midwives for out patients.
      The rules of admission are, in general, similar to those of other charitable institutions. Women are to be recommended by subscribers, and must produce certificates of their marriage. If suddenly taken ill, the matron must attend them at their own habitations. The physician and surgeon are to deliver the women in difficult cases, instruct the midwives, and act in their respective capacities.
      The matron must be a midwife, and deliver in ordinary cases. The number of women admitted, since the first opening to the present time, is considerably above two thousand patients.
      In the year 1761, a similar charity was instituted for poor Lying-in Women at their own Houses, in Newcastle and Gateshead. They have the assistance of one of the midwives in ordinary cases, and, when considered necessary, two surgeons attend. During the month, they have proper support; as also some pecuniary gratuity to aid the family, while the mother is thus incapacitated. 60
The humanity and disinterestedness of the charities are obvious. It is however with regret we are informed, that owing to the death of several of the principal subscribers, and the increased price of every necessary of life the funds are in a languishing state.
      On the representations of some medical and other gentlemen of Newcastle, that a piece of ground was wanted for the site of an hospital, intended to be erected in or near that town, for lunatics belonging to the counties of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle, the Corporation granted a lease of a piece of ground situated between Newgate and West-gate street, from October 7th, 1765, the date of the grant, for the term of ninety-nine years, at an annual rent of 2s. 6d.
     This building is in a retired situation, surrounded with pleasant grounds, and has a very neat appearance. The conveniences are numerous, and the treatment of the unhappy patients humane, and suitable to their situation. This hospital is under the direction of Dr. Wood. Another, named Belgrove, upon a smaller scale, is built on the Leazes, and is under the management of Dr. Steavenson.
     A third erection, of the same kind, is built on the edge of Gateshead Borough-grounds, at Bensham, and is also under the direction of Dr. Wood.
      The public baths of this town, situated without West-gate, were constructed a few years ago by the late Dr. Hall, at whose decease they were purchased by Dr. Kentish. This gentleman has made many improvements, as well in respect to particular conveniences, as in the general appearance of the place. An apparatus has also been made for applying the gaseous fluids, in cases where their use has been found salutary. Dr. Kentish, leaving Newcastle, the baths became the property of Malin Sorsbie, Esq.
      They consist of medicated vapour baths, tepid, and inclosed cold baths, and a large open bath for swiming in.

     HAVING succinctly given an account of the antiquity, walls, fortifications, public buildings, and charitable institutions of Newcastle, we shall give a short view of its charters and privileges.
In 1162, Henry II confirmed, by charter, to the townsmen of Newcastle their estates, and exempted them from tolls and duties.
      King John, of all the English Sovereigns, was the most munificent benefactor and patron of Newcastle. Here he frequently resided and held his court conventions of the nobles, and meetings of the estates of the realm, &c. This prince granted the most explicit charter to the people of Newcastle, anno 1212, the 14th year of his reign, confirming to the burgesses their rights and privileges conferred upon them, as well by his father, Henry II. as by himself. 62
      King Henry III by his charter, made Newcastle a "Mayor town", being governed by four bailiffs; and to his other royal favours added a grant, during pleasure, of all the demesne lands belonging to the Castle-fields, containing eight hundred and fifty acres, for free pasture; with liberty to dig coals and stones, and to dispose of them, for their use, to the best advantage, upon payment of £1 into the exchequer. He also gave them a field called the Forth, containing eleven acres, and then valued at £12 per annum, for which they were to pay £2; with the further privilege of authority to prevent Jews residing among them, who it appears at this time had behaved ill in Northumberland.
      King Edward I directed a writ of summons to Newcastle, anno 1282, to send two members to parliament, which is the earliest record we have of boroughs sending any, or indeed of the commons sitting as a branch of the legislature.
      King Edward III confirmed the franchises of the town, and granted it the perpetuity of the Moor, and lands called Castle-moor, and Castle-fields, for the payment of £2 annually, into the exchequer.
      He exempted Newcastle from the jurisdiction of the admiralty of England; gave permission to purchase lands to a certain value ; confirmed several bye-laws of the magistrates, for well governing and improving the town; and also issued an order for the manner of electing the mayor, magistrates, and other officers, and another concerning the measure to be used in vending coals. 63
     Anno 1378, being the first of his reign, Richard II. confirmed all the charters formerly granted to Newcastle. This prince also granted to the mayor and burgesses some pieces of ground, for the convenience of making high-ways, and a bridge. And, for the still greater honour of the town, Richard granted, anno 1390, that a sword, the ensign of royal state and authority, should be carried before the mayor.
      We shall briefly observe, that from the reign of Richard II to the fifteenth century, the corporation and free burgesses of Newcastle were uniformly acquiring fresh accessions of privileges from the throne, while they were rapidly extending their commerce and improving their resources of wealth and opulence. Queen Elizabeth not only confirmed all the former royal grants and charters, but gave the corporation a new charter, which, properly speaking, laid the solid foundation of the municipal constitution, defining the jurisdiction of its magistrates and civil officers, the extent of their authority, and the privileges, as well as the limits of their privileges.
    In 1684 the charter of this town was given up to Charles II. and a new one was granted by that prince; but reserving to himself the power of appointing whom he pleased in the magistracy. 64 He accordingly displaced the mayor, who had been constitutional- ly chosen by the corporation, and appointed Sir William Creach, a violent papist, in his room. A flattering address to the king was drawn up on this occasion, signed by himself, and other aldermen who were papists, approving of his majesty's wisdom in this new election; but when it was presented to the corporation at large, for their concurrence, a patriotic majority disdainfully refused to sacrifice the liberties of the town.
      THE supreme power is vested in the mayor, who is the chief magistrate; a sheriff, a recorder, a town-clerk, ten aldermen, and a common-council, composed of twenty-four burgesses.
    For the administration of justice, there are the following courts, viz.: the Mayor's Court, Sheriff's Court, Court of Conscience, Admiralty Court, Court of Common-council, Ward-Moot; Pie Powder (or Pied Poudre) Court, and three Courts of Guild, annually.
The principal court is the mayor's. It is held every Monday, at the west end of the Guild-hall, over the Exchange.
      This is a court of record, held on Wednesdays, and Fridays, for trials, and entering proceedings; as rules, appearances, judgments, pleas, &c.
     The defendant may, after the verdict is given, and before judgment is entered, stop judgment, by taking the cause before the mayor, for time to pay the money recovered against him. 65
     In this court, may be tried actions of debt, trespasses, accompts, covenants, broken attachments, and sequestrations. If either party cannot stay in town till the day of trial, his testimony, in writing, will be allowed for good evidence. The sheriff, if he pleases, may sit upon all trials, along with the recorder, who is also judge here.
      This court was first instituted in Newcastle, by an act of parliament, anno 1689, in the I William and Mary, and confirmed by another act, anno 1755, being the 27th George II.
      It is termed a court of conscience, because all debts under the sum of £2 may be here recovered upon the creditor making oath, that the same is a just and lawful debt. The mayor and recorder are the judges. They administer oaths, and commit offenders to prison.
      They proceed first by summons. This costs 3d. If the defendant appear, there is no further charge. If he does not, they proceed to attachment and prosecution. All persons, whether freemen, or not, may present and be presented, in this court, if within the liberties of the town. Freemen may be presented, though they live out of its liberties.
      This court is held before the mayor, for the preservation of the river Tyne, at such times as he shall direct. 66 His deputy, the water bailiff, gives notice of all offences committed to the injury of the river, that offenders may be proceeded against according to law.
      This court has some resemblance to the high senate of the nation. It consists of two houses; one is for the mayor and aldermen; the other is for the commoners. They make all bye-laws for the general benefit of the corporation. In this court also, all deeds and evidence are recorded. The mayor can call and adjourn it at pleasure.
      The real name of this court is Pied Poudre. It is held at the time of the two great fairs of this town; one at Lammas, the latter on the festival of St. Luke, for examining and trying all suits brought for petty differences, and offences committed at that time; and to prevent which, due proclamation is made on the first day of each fair.
     This court is held three times in the year. The principal business is for apprentices, and sons of freemen, to petition for their freedom. These are called by the style of the company that their fathers or masters were of. This is what is termed "calling their guilds." 67 The wardens and stewards of the several companies attend to prevent any person from obtaining his freedom who may not be entitled to it.      
     An apprentice is called three different guild days; the son of a freeman only once.
     The magistrates of Newcastle, being from their office, and by the charter of Elizabeth, justices of the peace for the Town and County of Newcastle, hold sessions of the peace every quarter of a year, in the Guild-hall. The recorder presides.
      THIS society was first denominated an ancient, religious, or secular guild, with the title of the " Guild or fraternity of the blessed Trinity," consisting of both sexes, and founded by some ancient royal authority, not now certainly known. In 1492, this society appears to have been an incorporated body, and purchased the site of their present house in the Broad Clare; for which a red rose was to be presented yearly, at midsummer, if demanded. A pottle of wine, for some additional grant, was continued to be paid annually, above a century after.
    68  Queen Elizabeth and king James II. each granted the society, charters, founding them anew, by the name of the Master, Pilots, and Seamen of the Trinity-House, of Newcastle upon Tyne, to be a perpetual brotherhood, consisting of nineteen elder brethren, who, with the rest, styled younger brethren, should, yearly, on the Sunday next after Candlemas, choose a master, two elder wardens, and two younger ones, as also four assistants out of the elder brethren, with as many out of the younger, for the government of the fraternity, and safe custody of the possessions thereof. Their jurisdiction extends to all the ports and creeks between Whitby and Holy Island, both inclusive; and they have the sole appointment of all sea and river pilots within these limits.
      THERE are several societies or companies in Newcastle, which, as well as the Trinity House, have the privilege of making the sons and apprentices of their members freemen of the town. They thus obtain the right of voting for its representatives in parliament, for, without being a freeman, no freeholder has a vote ; neither can he vote for the county of Northumberland ; so that by far the greatest number of the inhabitants can hardly be said to be represented.
      The Meeting House of the company of Smiths, adjacent to the Black Friars, is remarkable for having been once the scene of a particular state transaction. The ground floor, once the chapel of that fraternity, was the room in which homage was done by the Scottih king to the king of England, for the kingdom of Scotland.
      THIS river is navigable from Sparhawk, the name given to a rock at its entrance, to Hedwyn Streams, a distance of about nineteen miles; and, like most others, rises from different sources, some of them about seventy miles north-west from its mouth, but, if measured by its windings, considerably more.
     The channel varies much in its breadth and depth: The entrance at the Low-lights is very narrow, but forming into a fine large basin, nearly the whole length of Shields, renders it a valuable haven. At the west end of this spacious harbour, the tide spreads over the extensive flats of Jarrow Slake, and then, for a considerable distance, runs in a broad and deep channel, called the Long Reach, from whence the tide is obstructed by several windings, till it comes within a mile of Newcastle, whence it again runs in an open stream, till it arrives a mile and a half above the bridge, where it is again considerably intercepted in its course by an island, consisting of about twenty-one acres of pasture ground, called the King's Meadows; after flowing round which, in two narrow channels, and through several beautiful windings, it rises to a little above the village of Newburn, about eight miles from Newcastle, following the course of
the river. 70 
The tide commonly flows about four hours and a half at Newcastle Bridge. The perpendicular rise of the tide here, in a spring tide, is generally about eleven or twelve feet, and at Tynemouth-bar, about eighteen feet; but it varies greatly from particular circumstances.
The Bar is a ridge of sand, which lies at the entrance of the River Tyne, on which there is, at spring tides, from twenty-one to twenty-three feet, and at neap tides, from sixteen to eighteen feet at high water.
    Vessels of thirteen feet draught of water can go up to Newcastle to discharge their cargoes.
     There is an officer belonging to the corporation, named a Water Bailiff, whose business it is to prevent offences to the injury of the river, to arrest ships who omit paying their corporation dues, or defraud seamen of their wages; and to seize all goods conveyed on shore in suspected places. He is also to maintain the royalties, privileges, and liberties of the port. He has a deputy allowed him, to assist in the'execution of his very extensive duty.
     This officer is also appointed by the corporation. His duty is to attend on the quay or wharf, to prevent damage being done; to appoint the births or stations of ships; to assess, by the ton, such ballast as shall be cast out of any ship stationed there; to indorse on the ballast-warrant the number of tons, and due casting of them, without injury to the river; after which the said warrant is returned into the ballast-office in the custom-house, where all corporation dues are now paid.
      Mr. Greathead, an ingenious boat builder, in South-Shields, constructed a few years ago, by the directions of a committee of ship-owners of South Shields, a boat of such buoyant materials, that in the most violent storms it has been the means of saving the lives of many seamen, who, otherwise, must have fallen vicictims to the tempest, and hence is called a life-boat. He has since built another by order of his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, which is kept at North Shields. For this the Humane Society presented Mr Greathead with a medal. The same artist was then employed, by the corporation of Yarmouth, to construct a similar one, which proved equally successful.
      As this appeared to be a discovery of national importance, the lords of the admiralty took its construction and utility under serious investigation, and so much approved of it, that they ordered Mr Great-head to build life-boats for several harbours in the island.
      This discovery also drew the attention of the legislature ; and on its being laid before parliament Mr Greathead was rewarded by a vote of £1200. Lifeboats have since been built, by order of the governments of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and America.
     72 In its construction, the life-boat nearly resembles a Norway Yawl; its keel is of iron, and curved; the bilges on the inside are cased with cork, and it has a considerable spring at each end. It has no mast. The men secure themselves by ropes, and instead of thoules row the boat with grummets, which prevent the oars from being lost.
      ADJACENT to so fine a river as that of the Tyne, a stranger will expect to find many genteel residences. We shall therefore briefly describe the principal seats, &c. a particular detail not coming within the limits of our work.
      Above Hexham the river is divided into two streams, called north and south Tyne. Belsay Castle and Swinburne Castle, the seats of Sir C. Middleton Monk, Bart. and of Sir J. Swinburne, Bart. are near the sources of north Tyne, and Chipchase is on the banks of north Tyne, about twenty miles from Newcastle, the seat of J. Reed, Esq.
      Bywell House, the seat of Mrs Fenwick, is a handsome modern structure, at the west end of the village of Bywell, on the banks of the Tyne, about twelve miles distant from Newcastle. Here are the vestiges of the first bridge constructed by the Romans in their progress north from Chester-le-street. It appears from these remains to have been a strong building.
    73 Ovingham, a village further eastward, on the banks of the Tyne, is also pleasantly situated. It has the ruins of the once strong castle of Prudhoe, and a dismantled chapel in full view.
      Wylam is a populous village, also on the banks of the river. It is about nine miles distant from Newcastle. At the west end is Wylam Hall, the seat of C. Blackett, Esq.
      Heddon on the Wall is remarkable for having a considerable part of the Roman Wall almost entire. This village commands a good view of Close House, the seat of C. Bewicke, Esq. This house stands on the side of a hill, and is very desirably thtuated in the vale of the Tyne.
      Newburn is a small village. It has been principally noted for its salmon fishery, though this has greatly declined for some years past. The church is at the north-west end of the village, in the form of a cross, with a small tower.
      Condercum, now Benwell, was formerly the seat of R. Shaftoe, Esq. This once handsome mansion is now in ruins. The village is pleasantly situated. Further down is Fenham, the manor and seat of W. Ord, Esq. It is a modern and elegant structure.
    Elswick House, about two miles west from Newcastle, is the seat of J. Hodgson, Esq. This mansion has been lately rebuilt, and from its elevated situation commands an extensive prospect.
    About four miles wrth from Newcastle, is Gosforth House, the seat of C. J. Brandling, Esq. M. P. This is a modem and stately mansion, with a very extensive park and pleasure grounds. 74
      Blagdon, the seat of Sir M. White Ridley, Bart. M. P. and Colonel of the Newcastle Armed Association, is about nine miles north from Newcastle, on the great north road.
      Heaton House, the seat of M. Ridley, Esq. son of Sir M. White Ridley, Bart. is a handsome building, about two miles north-east of Newcastle, to which you pass along a part of the Shields turnpike road. From the porter's lodge, by an easy ascent for a quarter of a mile, you reach the village of Byker. This village stands on an eminence, at the west end of which is an artificial castellated ruin. It commands a fine view, including Newcastle and part of the river.
      On the north from Shields road, about three miles distant from Newcastle, is Benton House, the seat of C. W. Bigge, Esq.; near which is another of stone, belonging to T. Bigge, Esq.
     Carville, about four miles from Newcastle, obtained its name from a Mr Carr, brother of Wm. Carr, of Etall, Esq., who rebuilt it. It is supposed to have been the Segedunum, a station of the Roman Wall. It stands within a short distance of the Shields road.
      At Willington, about one mile and a half lower down, is the extensive ropery of Messrs Chapman, of Newcastle. Here the ropes are manufactured on a new and much approved principle, for which Mr W. Chapman, the inventor, obtained a patent.
    75 Howdon, formerly Howdon Pans, is a populous village, about six miles from Newcastle. Here are a dock, an extensive ship-building-yard, and ropery.
      Two miles further down the river, are North and South Shields, of which we shall give a particular account afterwards.
      Having now enumerated the principal places on the north side, we shall proceed to take a short survey of those on the south side of the Tyne. The first we shall name is Hexham, situated about twenty miles south-west of Newcastle, and built on an eminence, near the united streams of south and north Tyne, giving its name to a large tract of country, called Hexham-shire. It is a town of great antiquity.    
      The most learned antiquarians believe it to be Roman. It had one of the most magnificent priories in the kingdom.The Scots, invading the north of England in Edward I time, set the priory on fire, anno 1296, under the conduct of the celebrated Sir Wm. Wallace. It was pillaged again by David king of Scots. On the west side of the market-place are still to be seen the remains of the priory church, or old cathedral.
      Ryton, about eight miles from Newcastle, is a delightful village, with a good church, situated on au eminence. It has had some eminent men for its rectors, viz. Dr. Cave, who wrote the lives of the Fathers, and Dr. Secker, promoted afterwards to the see of Canterbury. 76 This last gentleman had the honour to christen, marry, and crown our present sovereign, George III.
      Whickham, four miles distant from Newcastle, is situated on the brow of a hill. The street, which is nearly a mile in length, contains a neat church, many good houses, and commands a fine prospect.
Beneath Whickham, on its north side, is the populous village of Swalwell, where are the extensive iron works of Messrs Crowley and Co. See manufactories.
       At the north-west end of Swalwell is a handsome bridge of three arches, over the river Derwent, which has a fine effect in the view from Axwell Park House, the seat of Sir T. Clavering, Bart. This is a very fine mansion and of modern architecture. About a mile south up the Derwent, you arrive at Gibside, the seat of the Earl of Strathmore, and Colonel of the Derwent Volunteers.
      By a serpentine road, nearly a mile in length, you wind through the bosom of a thick forest, before you approach the mansion, and enter the open walks. Upon coming out of the wood, you are agreeably struck with a view of the banqueting house, on a very elevated situation, terminating a spacious avenue. This structure is in a high gothic stile, adorned with pinnacles, in the front view of which is a beautiful piece of water : From this basin, to the right, lies a noble sylvan scene, of great extent, hanging on inclining grounds, from a lofty summit to the very skirts of the vale in the midst of which, as a terminating object to the grand vista, rises a fine ionic column of stone one hundred and forty feet in height, surmounted by an elegant gilt statue of liberty.
   77  Turning from this striking object, you look along a terrace a mile in length, at the end of which is a chapel, built in a most elegant style, With a rich portico and dome, though not yet completed withinside. The chief parts of the mansion house are old, but the present Earl has completed an entire new wing, and is rebuilding the whole mansion. The back part of Gibside-house is placed so near the brink of a very steep descent, as merely to admit a terrace walk, from whence is a prospect, highly picturesque and beautiful.
      The green-house, the bath, and other edifices, are finished in a good taste. With regard to the sylvan beauties, they are certainly not excelled by any in the country, and are deserving the attention of the visitor. The house contains some good pictures.
Dunston, two miles from Newcastle, is a pleasant village, close by the Tyne.
     About a mile southward, on the neighbouring banks, is Dunston-hill-house, the villa of John Carr, Esq.
     About three miles from Newcastle, is Ravensworth Castle, the seat of Sir Thos. Liddell, Bart. This castle anciently formed a complete square, with towers. Sir Thomas having projected some improvements, a part of the building has been taken down. The gardens, in which is a most elegant range of hot houses, perhaps not inferior to any in the kingdom, display considerable taste.
     78 Further down, within a mile of Newcastle, is Redheugh, the seat of Adam Askew, Esq. Lieut. Colonel of the Gateshead Volunteers. The house is very pleasantly situated, commanding an extensive view of the Tyne, the bridge, the shipping, and a part of Newcastle. The garden, pleasure grounds, and plantations, are laid out with great taste.
       We next come to Gateshead, of which a distinct account, as a separate borough from Newcastle, will be given afterwards.
       Although it does not fall within the plan we have prescribed to ourselves, yet we must not altogether omit mentioning, that about ten miles south from Gateshead, in the vicinity of Chester-le-street, is Lumley Castle. This princely mansion, one of the seats of the Earl of Scarborough, stands southeast of Chester, on a fine elevated situation. The lands rise gradually from the channel of the river Were, on the south and west sides; and on the north is the rivulet called Lumley Beck. The form of this edifice is square, having a projecting tower at each angle, and a court or area in the centre : the corners of each tower are guarded with buttresses, crowned with a small turret, or observatory. What is singular in the construction of the turrets is, that they are octangular, so that they overhang the face of each square of the base, and are machicolated or open, for the purpose of annoying assailants by stones and other missiles, giving the edifice a singular appearance. 79 From a platform, at the entrance into the hall, you command a most beautiful prospect. At the foot of the avenue which leads up to the castle, is a fine basin of water, with a salmon lock, and fisherman's cottage over which, on the opposite grounds, you view the town of Chester, the church with its lofty spire, and the deanry house.
      The hall is proportionable to the mansion, being twenty paces in length. Here is an arrangement of portraits, at full length, of the chief personages of the noble family of Lumley. The great dining-room contains. likewise several fine portraits.
      Gateshead Park-house, formerly a seat of the late Henry Ellison, Esq. and now of the younger branches of the family of that gentleman, is pleasantly situated, near the banks of the Tyne.
       About three miles further eastward, you arrive at Hebburn Hall, the seat of Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. and Colonel of the Gateshead Volunteers. It is a handsome modern built house.
     On the same side, further down, you arrive at Jarrow, once a place of great consequence, and of very remote antiquity.
     The monasteries of Weremouth and Jarrow were the most ancient of any within the limits of this country : That of Bishop Weremouth, dedicated to St. Peter, we are told, was built in the fourth year of king Egfrid, at the request of Benedict, who became the superior, or governor of both houses. 80 The monastery of Jarrow, dedicated to St. Paul, was erected in the fifteenth year of the same king; the place being then called Gyrwy, or Girvy. Retirement or seclusion were not the principles which directed the choice of this situation; for if the original monastery was placed where the present church stands, the ground is elevated, and forms a curvature towards the extensive bay called the Slake, which ancient authors tell us was the haven of king Egfrid, where, according to the burthen of vessels used in that age, a thousand sail might lie moored in the greatest safety. Such was its original state for many years, but in the fifth year of Ethelred's reign, after his restoration to the throne, and during the episcopacy of bishop Higbald, the Danes and rovers from the north entered the river Tyne, and laid this monastery in ashes. The monks, upon the retiring of these plundering banditti, returned, and partly repaired the ruined building, but their peace was of short continuance ; for in the seventh year of Osbert's reign, the Danes again entered the Tyne with a powerful squadron of ships, exercising their usual rapine and devastation towards all the religious houses. This was not the only disaster which the monastery of Jarrow experienced ; for we are told that the Normans marching northward, and finding the city of Durham deserted, and the country evacuated, they put their sacrilegious hands to this monastery, and like the savage unenlightened Danes, again reduced this sacred edifice to ashes. These disasters happened Jarrow, anno 870, and the second devastation befel it two centuries after, by William the Conqueror.
  81 It was, after these disasters, repaired, and partly rebuilt, by grants, both royal and pontifical but with scarcely any appearance of its former magnificence. This, too, falling into decay, the church of Jarrow underwent a thorough repair, anno 1783 and, anno 1790, the following inscription on a stone was removed to the west end of the church of Jarrow:
Basilicas litjus
Pars Occidentalis
Restaurata est.
Anno 1783.
[ The western part of this very ancient church wag rebuilt in the year 1783.]
     In the vestry, kept with great care, is an arm-chair of oak, of an antique form, that is said to have been the identical chair in which the venerable Bede sat and wrote most of his works. If this is correct, it must be above one thousand years old.
     Anno 700, many privileges were granted to the joint monasteries of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Jarrow and Weremouth, by Sergius, Pontiff at Rome.
      But what distinguishes this church and vicinity is, that here the celebrated Bede, if he did not draw his first breath in it, yet he spent most of his days in the exercise of the sacred functions of his office at Jarrow; and we are informed that, anno 735, Bede the great boast of the monastery of St. Paul, died, and was first buried at Jarrow, but was afterwards removed to Durham.
      82 Bede, for the age in which he lived, was a prodigy of learning. He was very tolerably acquainted with the latin and greek classics and, to his unwearied diligence, we owe almost our whole knowledge of that dark and turbulent period. His ecclesiastical history is replete with curious information, and is written in no contemptible latin. For a gravity of deportment, and the strictest piety, he got the epithet of Venerable, at an early period of his life, and being canonized by the Roman Pontiff, he was enrolled in the calendar of their saints. He was acquainted with poetry, rhetoric, logic, physics, metaphysics, astronomy, music, geometry, cosmography, history, philosophy, and particularly with divinity.
      William of Malmsbury thus draws the character of Venerable Bede—" He was a man, that although born in an extreme corner of the world, yet the light of his learning spread over all parts of the earth. All the hours which he had to spare from the monastic exercises of prayer, and singing in the choirs by day and night, (in which he was constant and very de-devout) he most diligently spent in study, and divided his whole time between that and his devotion. Bede was preceptor to Alcuinus, tutor to Charlemagne, and Claudius and Clemens, those great lights of the church, and the illustrious founders of the universities of Paris and Pavia"
  83 Venerable Bede died in the seventy-second year of his age.
     About a mile west of Jarrow, there is a well still called Bede's well, in which diseased. children were dipped, and wonderful cures were believed to have been made by this immersion.
     Hilton Castle. This magnificent structure was the family seat of the Hiltons, before the Norman conquest; and continued above 700 years, to the time of John Hilton, Esq. the last male heir, who died, 1746. The estates were sold to Mrs Bowes, relict of George Bowes, of Gibside, Esq. and are now in the possession of the Earl of Strathmore. The Castle has of late been let on a long lease to Simon Temple, Esq. Hilton Castle is delightfully seated in a vale on the banks of the river Wear. The centre of the west front, consists of the grand entrance and gateway, defended by square projecting turrets, crowned with hanging parapets, which transversely cross the angles. The battlements are ornamented with human figures. The whole is adorned with many armorial devices, expressive of the antiquity and importance of the ancient family of Hilton, which was not only one of the most eminent, but also one of the most opulent in the north of England. In the pedigree of the Hiltons, there are several names remarkable for their learning and piety, but a greater number renowned for their martial deeds. War seems to have been the pleasure and genius of the Hiltons. Since the time of the conquest, it is remarked of this family, that one was slain in Feversham, in Kent, one in Normandy, one at Mentz in France, three in the holy wars, under Edward I., three at the battle of Bourdeaux, under the Black Prince, one at Agincourt, two at Berwick upon Tweed, against the Scots, two at the battle of St. Albans, five at Market Bosworth, and four at Flodden Field.
      Passing eastward from Hilton Castle, you arrive at Monkwearmouth, at the entrance of the river Wear, over which is a Bridge that alone is sufficient to render this place deserving the attention of the stranger. Sunderland, the town on the south side of the river, opposite to Monkwearmouth, increasing in population and trade, had no communication with the north side but by means of passage boats, often extremely dangerous in tempestuous weather, as well as inconvenient, till Rowland Burdon, Esq. one of the present representatives for the county of Durham, with a patriotism that must reflect a lasting credit on his name, proposed the building a bridge of iron of one arch, to unite the two towns without impeding the navigation, and which was effected, principally at the expense of and after a plan of Mr Burdon's own. The first block of iron was laid in September, 1795, and the bridge was opened on August 9th, 1796. It is a beautiful piece of mechanism, and cost £27,000.
      The span of the arch is 236 feet; and as the springing stones at each side project two feet, the whole opening is 240 feet. The arch is a segment of a circle of about four hundred and forty-four feet diameter; its versed sine is thirty-four feet, and the whole height from low water about one hundred feet, admitting vessels of from two to three hundred tons burthen to pass under, without striking their masts. 85 A series of one hundred and five blocks form a rib, and six of these ribs compose the breadth of the bridge. The spandrels, or the spaces between the arch and the road-way, are filled up by cast-iron circles, which touch the outer circumference of the arch, and at the same time support the road-way, thus gradually diminishing from the abutments towards the centre of the bridge. There are also diagonal iron bars, which are laid on the tops of the ribs, and extended to the abutments to keep the ribs from twisting. The supertructure is a strong frame of timber planked over to support the carriage-road, which-is composed of marl, lime-stone, and gravel, with a cement of tar and chalk immediately upon the planks to preserve them. The whole width of the bridge is thirty-two feet. The abutments are masses of almost solid masonry, twenty-four feet in thickness, forty-two in breadth at bottom, and thirty-seven at top. The south pier is founded on the solid rock, and rises from about twenty-two feet above the bed of the river. On the north side the ground was not so favourable, so that it was necessary to carry the foundation ten feet below the bed. The weight of the iron in this extraordinary fabric amounts to two hundred and six tons forty-six of these are malleable, and two hundred and fourteen cast. We now arrive in our observations, at the towns of:
      THESE lie opposite to each other. In the reign of Edward I. when the contest between Newcastle and the priory of Tinmouth happened, North Shields contained only five or six fishermen's huts, but since has become a large place. South Shields is also much improved of late years, about the centre of which, within a few years, a large square has been built, having the church on the south, with a few streets branching from the centre of each side of the square, and a handsome town-hall used by the Dean and Chapter as a court-house, with a collonade under it for the market people. Bishop Trevor of Durham granted them, anno 1770, a market to be held weekly, on Wednesday, and two annual fairs.
      A considerable trade is carried on in South Shields, from the number of vessels that frequent the harbour. Salt was for many years a principal manufacture here, but of late, from the heavy duties imposed on this article, and the importation of rock-salt, this branch of business has been much on the decline. We are informed that the salt manufactured here used to produce £80,000 per annum, of duty, whereas now that the duty is more than doubled, for some years past it has not produced £10,000. About fifty years ago, it is said there were two hundred salt pans here; at present there are not above five or six. But while that trade has declined, others of greater consequence have rapidly improved. According to Hutchinson, within these eighty years, there were not more than four ships belonging to South Shields, now there are five hundred, of from one to five hundred tons burthen. There are here nine dry docks for repairing, and ten yards for building of ships. 87
     About a mile southward is the village of Westoe, commanding a fine view of the German Ocean and adjacent country. The street is wide and airy, and contains many neat houses,
     North Shields lies on the other side of the river Tyne, the low street of which is almost equally incommodious as that in South Shields. The etymology of its name, " Shields," imports, that it consisted only of sheds, or shields, for the accommodation of poor fishers. North Shields terminates at the west end, by an assemblage of buildings, under the general name of Milburn Place. It has two parallel streets, running from west to east. The front looks towards the river, and is composed of a row of good houses, on an elevated situation, which commands an extenive prospect. North Shields contains one dock and several ship building yards. The houses in the low street are almost one continued range of shops. North-eastward from Milburn Place, along the bank top, are two handsome squares, called Dockwray Square, and Toll Square, and new streets rapidly advancing. The parish church, lately rebuilt, stands about half a mile north from the river. It is a neat edifice, with a fine peal of bells in a square tower.
  88  North Shields contains five dissenting Meeting Houses, and two Methodist Chapels., The population of North and South Shields is computed to be about twenty-five thousand.
      The Theatre is a good building, and is at present conducted by Mr Stephen Kemble, who has the Newcastle Theatre.
      At the east end of North Shields is a strong fort, called Clifford's Fort, and an arsenal.. It is almost level with the river, and forms a powerful defence against any hostile attempt to destroy the shipping in the harbour. In Clifford's Fort is the low light, which corresponding with another on the top of the bank, serves as a guide to ships entering the harbour.
      But the glory of Shields is its large and commodious harbour, which is about two miles in length, and where about two thousand ships can ride at anchor. In both South and North Shields are several large roperies and extensive breweries.
THE village of Tynemouth has one very wide and airy street and some smaller ones, and contains several good houses, most of which are let in the summer season to those who resort here for pleasure or sea bathing. The usual morning walk is among the ruins of the castle and monastery.
      These stately ruins have an air of grandeur which strike the beholder with a kind of sympathetic and reverential awe. They carry the mind back to those " days of other times," when this once magnificent monastery was the occasional residence of royal personages, prelates, and nobles. It is, however, probable that Tynemouth Abbey, in its primary construction, was no more than a religious house, of rude and simple architecture, in early times, upon the introduction of the monastic institution into this island; as we are told that Edwin, king of Northumberland, between the years of Christ 617 and 633, erected here a place of residence of wood, for religious of both sexes, and in which Rosella, his own daughter, took the veil. Oswald, who succeeded to the throne of Northumberland, anno 1634, pulled down this wooden religious fabric, and upon its site built another of stone. An Oratory, dedicated to St. Mary, is said to have been in this place, where a great number of persons of distinction assembled for the purposes of religion. The monastery quickly acquired a high reputation for local sanctity, insomuch, that persons dying in the vicinity were brought to be interred within its hallowed walls.
Among others, the murdered body of king Oswin, who by base treachery fell a sacrifice to the ambition of Oswy, king of Bernicia, another of the petty princes of Northumberland, anno 651.
      The rapacious, barbarous Danes repeatedly and destroyed this stately monastery. It was completely demolished by Hungar and Hubba, but afterwards rebuilt by Tosti, earl of Northumberland.
 90    The bodies of Malcolm, king of Scotland, and Edward his son, both slain in battle at Alnwick, were interred in this monastery.
      The oppressions that the English suffered by the Conqueror, and his family, often excited rebellions; in one of which, earl Mowbray, attempting to dethrone Rufus, was defeated, fled to this monastery, and fortified it against the assailants; but Rufus, marching in person against him, besieged the castle for two months, and taking the place, Mowbray was dragged out, and ignominiously put to death.
This prince conferred many grants and privileges upon the monastery of Tynemouth. Henry II. gave it also several valuable endowments; but, above A, king John, who resided much in those parts, was the most liberal donor to Tynemouth priory.
From undoubted records, it appears, that the priory of Tynemouth possessed the royalties of no fewer than twenty-seven villas in the county of Northumberland. But Henry VIII stripped this august monastery of all its valuable possessions, anno 1539, when Robert Blakeney, prior, with fifteen monks and three novices, surrendered the monastery of Tynemouth. Henry, however, conferred pensions upon the expelled religious.
     This castle, from its lofty situation, built on rocks of a great height, and almost perpendicular to the sea, seems by nature to be formed for a place of strength. Accordingly, we find, at an early period, it was fortified against the occasional depredations of pirates, and of the still more formidable invasions of the Danes and Scots. Tynemouth, on that account, became, for ages, the scene of many sanguinary conflicts. 91
      During the unhappy civil wars, between Charles I and the parliament, the earl of Newcastle, then governor there, knowing the importance of the place, as the grand ostium to the river Tyne, sent and fortified it with three hundred soldiers, and six large cannon. Trenches were cast up, and a fort was erected at the mouth of the haven, for its greater security. However, after a Beige of some time, it surrendered to general Lord Leven, commander of the Scots army, and with thirty-eight pieces of heavy ordnance, great store of arms, ammunition, and provisions, fell into the hands of the enemy; the principal commanders having previously left the garrison, on account of the plague, which raged within the walls.
      What is rather a curious circumstance, the famous Col. Lilburn, deputy governor of the Castle of Tynemouth, under Sir Arthur Haslerigg, changing sides, and declaring for the king, was besieged by Haslerigg, who stormed the castle, and put all found in arms to the sword. Lilburn's head was cut off, and fixed upon a pole.
    92 After having suffered many disastrous revolutions, government resumed the possession of Tynemouth Castle, anno 1783, making it a depot of arms and stores; when a fine park of artillery and a quantity of ammunition was lodged in a new building erected within the castle yard for the purpose. In doing this, however, the duke of Richmond, then master of the ordnance, entirely destroyed the magnificent entrance, which had been, for ages, the chief ornament of the castle, and rebuilt it in a contemptible style of architecture, over which barracks are fitted up for the soldiers.
      In the ruins of Tynemouth monastery, there are still observable three recesses in the south wall, near the entrance to the oratory of St. Mary one is said to have been the confessional chair, another for containing the holy water, and the third the closet for the consecrated host.
     The little oratory of St. Mary, was cleaned out by order of the governor, upon making the late alterations in the castle, and built up to preserve it from further desecrations. On the east end of the lofty ruins of the priory, it remains still entire.
     The salary of the governor of Tynemouth Castle is £284 per annum, that of the lieutenant governor £173. On the north-east side of the castle is a lighthouse, for the direction of ships on the coast. It is a lofty building, has an oil light, and is considered one of the best light-houses on the coast. Close by the light-house is a battery of heavy ordnance, with mortars for shells for the defence of the shipping.
      These are of considerable extent, quadrangular, handsomely built, and command a delightful view of the German ocean. The rooms for the soldiers are neat, convenient, and airy. The square is extensive and convenient to exercise in.
Adjacent to the barracks, on the west side, is a correction house, or penitentiary, lately erected.
       This ancient borough town is situated on the south banks of the Tyne, in the county of Durham, and has a jurisdiction distinct from that of Newcastle. It has several streets, but the principal one runs almost due south from Tyne Bridge, forming part of the great road to London.
      The borough of Gateshead contains, according to the late account taken of the population by order of government, 8,597 inhabitants. It is remarkable that about two hundred years there were nearly as many.
      This church is dedicated to St. Mary, and is of great antiquity. At so remote a period as anno 1080, a church of Gateshead is mentioned in history, in which the tyrannical Walcher, bishop of Durham was murdered. The site of the original church in Gateshead, seems, according to Mr Bourne, to have been further eastward than that of the present one, in a field called Lawless-Close.
The date of founding the present church is not ascertained, but, in 1291 the church of Gateshead was rated at £13. 6s. 8d. annual value.
      It is a large and well constructed building, and from its elevated situation commands a fine view of Newcastle. 94 Among the monuments which it contains, is one against the south wall, a square marble compartment, with the following inscription:
To the Memory of
Andrew Wood, M. A.
Rector of this Church,
Born May 21, 1715,
Inducted September 9, 1770,
Amidst the Tears of his parishioners,
March 15, 1772.
This monument of their esteem,
affection, and gratitude,
was erected by the people of Gateshead.
      This beautiful old building, from the style of the architecture, corresponds with that used in the reign of Henry III and the long slips in the windows, have a resemblance to those at the end of Tynemouth monastery, and of the Temple church in London. The west end of it is handsomely ornamented with a number of pointed arches. This hospital in Gateshead, was dedicated to St. Edmund, and St. Cuthbert, and was founded anno 1248, by Nicholas Farnham, bishop of Durham. A great number of rich donations consisting of lands, &c. were made to this Hospital, for the support of four chaplains or priests; but it shared the fate of other religions foundations under Henry VIII. anno 1548. It is now in ruins. 95
      Nearly adjoining to this hospital, on its east side, was a Catholic Chapel. Anno 1745, when the late Duke of Cumberland was marching into Gateshead, on his way to Scotland against the rebels, it was from a misguided zeal wantonly set on fire by a mob, and reduced also to ruins.
      Situate about a quarter of a mile further southward, was refounded, anno 1681, by king James, who granted it a charter by the new name of " King James Hospital, in Gateshead," and decreed that it should consist of a master, the rector of Gateshead for the time being, and three poor, old, unmarried men, to be called brethren. The bishops of Durham to be patrons.
      Adjoining the hospital, has been disused as to public service for some years past, and the dwellings of the brethren removed. It appears originally to have been founded for the ease and convenience of the parishioners residing at a distance from the parish church.
This valuable foundation was constituted by a bequest of Theophilus Pickering, S. T. P. rector of Gateshead, Jan. 1701, who left £300 towards the perpetual maintenance of a Free School in the parish of Gateshead, for the education of fifteen poor boys, who were to be taught the English, Latin, and Greek tongues, writing, and a knowledge of navigation. The master to be chosen by the rector of the church.
      The school room is in Gateshead church yard, in a building called the Anchorage.
      There is a Post-Office in Gateshead, under regulations similar to those of Newcastle, and one chapel for dissenters.
      This house was built in 1731, by the trustees of the late Mr Thomas Powell, Newcastle, who had bequeathed all his estate, real and personal, for the building of an alms-house for poor widows to reside in. It has been converted to a poor house for some years past.
      The freeholders of the parish have the privilege of stinting horses, cattle, and sheep, on Gateshead Fell, an extensive moor adjoining on the south. The bishop of Durham claims the royalty thereof. But the most valuable property of the borough is the grounds situated on the west side of Gateshead, consisting of nearly two hundred acres, which, within a few years, have been converted from moor land to well cultivated inclosures. They are appropriated to the use of the resident borough-holders and freemen of Gateshead, who have each the privilege of stinting thereon a mulch cow.
     97 Gateshead contains a number of respectable shops and some manufactories; particularly the extensive iron works of Messrs Hawks, Sons, and Train. See manufactories.
      THE manufactories in Newcastle and its vicinity, in a great measure, depend upon the great abundance of excellent coal in the neighbourhood. We proceed shortly to enumerate the various manufactories in which it is so material an assistant, as also the principal trades carried on here.
       The iron works at Swalwell and Winlation, two adjoining villages upon the river Derwent, about three miles above Newcastle, are the greatest in this neighbourhood, and give employment to about 400 men.
      They were first begun by a gentleman of the name of Ambrose Crowley, who, from the condition of a common blacksmith, aided by a vigorous mind, and prosecutions of his plans, laid the foundation of these extensive works. They are now carried on under the firm of Messrs Crowley, Millington and Co.
      Winlaton was the place Sir Ambrose first fixed upon as a situation to establish these works, in 1690, but Swalwell presents the most important scene for the manufacture of massive articles.
Ships anchors, chains, spades, shovels, nails, steel, edge tools, files, and all kinds of domestic utensils are manufactured at these places. Here is also a mill, called Winlaton Mill, where iron bars are slit into long narrow rods, called nail strings, for making of nails of all sizes, and an extensive foundry for casting all kinds of cast iron goods.
      Their principal consumption, besides Newcastle and the adjoining country, is in London. The company have warehouses at Greenwich and in Thames Street, London, and constantly employ two vessels of three hundred tons burthen each, in carrying their goods thither.
     When these works were first formed the benevolent proprietor, Sir Ambrose, thought it was necessary to institute a code of laws, for the establishment of peace and good order; not only calculated for the profit and advantage of the master, but the tranquility and happiness of the servant; these, after several amendments, as cases and exigencies dictated, have become certain and established.
To put these laws in execution, a court of arbitrators was constituted at Winlaton, to be holden every ten weeks, for hearing and determining cases among the workmen, to which all have an appeal. The fees are fixed at a moderate rate. This institution has the most happy and extensive use, as it quiets the differences that happen among the people, protects their claims to justice in an easy and expeditious manner, and preserves them from the expence of law suits. 99
      As a further promotion of civilization, schools were established at Swalwell, Winlaton, and Winlaton Mill, for the sole benefit of the workmen's children, where they are instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Sir Ambrose also appointed a surgeon to attend the whole body of the workmen.
      When a workman is ill, he has money advanced him by the agents; when superannuated, or disabled, he has a weekly maintenance; and when he dies, his family is provided for.
      For directing the spiritual concerns of the numerous workmen, a chapel was erected in Winlaton, capable of containing above 300 persons, to which a chaplain was appointed, whose salary, at first, was paid by the voluntary contribution of the workmen, of one farthing upon every shilling of their earnings. The company, however, have now taken the whole ex-pence attending this religious institution upon themselves.
      These extensive iron works, situated near Gateshead, by the river, are the property of Messrs Hawks, Sons, and Train.
They were begun about fifty years ago, by the present Mr Hawks, and form another striking proof of what may be effected in a commercial kingdom.100 Here, as at Swalwell and Winlaton, steel, anchors, and all kinds of iron articles are manufactured; here, also, are a mill for boring cannon, and all kinds of cast metal cylinders, another for grinding edge tools, a forge, and the most complete foundry in the neighbourhood. In addition to these, the company have a mill at Bedlington, about twelve miles from Newcastle, for slitting iron into nail rods, and rolling iron hoops, &c. two iron forges at Beamish, about seven miles distant, and another at Lumley, near Chester-le-Street. London is a principal market for their manufactured goods, government being supplied with many of the heavier kinds of articles from these works. The company hold a considerable number of shares in the Newcastle Packets, by which vessels they convey their goods to their warehouses at Deptford, in London.
      The villages of High and Low Team, about a mile and half from Gateshead, are principally peopled by the manufacturers employed in the Iron Works at these places, at present carried on by Messrs Morrison, Mossman, and Co. Here also, steel, anchors, and other kinds of iron articles, are manufactured. The company have also two iron forges and a slitting mill.
      These very extensive works, situated close by the river, about four miles westward from Newcastle, for the purpose of smelting iron ore and manufacturing iron, were begun about six years ago, by a company of gentlemen, under the firm of the Tyne Iron Company, but have since become the property of another company of gentlemen, under the same firm.
      These works are most desirably situated, both with respect to coals, and the convenience of transporting their manufactured goods by water. The iron stone is brought in small vessels from Yorkshire and other parts of the coast. The company have warehouses and an office at the west end of the quay, in Newcastle.
      In addition to the foundries at Swalwell and New Greenwich, there is an extensive one in the Close, Newcastle, the property of Isaac Cookson, Esq. and Co.
      At Busy Cottage, about a mile and half distant from Newcastle, is another belonging to Mr Malin Sorsbie.
      Skinner Burn and Sandgate have also each a foundry, the properties of Messrs Whinfield and Co., and Mr Moffatt.
      In Pipewellgate, Gateshead, are also two foundries, the properties of Messrs Whinfield and Co. and of Messrs Hall and Whinfield.
        IT is to the westward of Newcastle, in Hexhamshire particularly, where the richest lead mines are to be found, though some are worked in Cumberland.
      The ore is generally smelted near the mines, and then conveyed to the river Tyne, in pigs or bars.
      Of the lead ore obtained in these parts, we have the following account.
      A bing of lead ore is eight cwt. and upon an average, four and a quarter bings, or thirty-four cwt. of ore, will produce one ton of lead.
      A fodder of lead at Newcastle is twenty-one cwt. and will produce from seven to twelve ounces of silver; but if it yields under seven ounces and a half, it will not pay the expense of refining. The strata, or sills, (as miners call them) which carry ore, are various. The grey post bears well, but the best is the great lime stone, both in respect to quantity and quality. It is generally about seventy fathoms below the surface. Veins, as they are called by lead miners, are in coal works called dykes, and are certain joints, or shakes in the earth, where the several strata are disjointed, and placed in a varied position. In the joint, or shake, is found the lead. ore. Ore, upon an average is won for about £1 a bing.
      The greatest part of the lead which comes down the Tyne is shipped at the wharfs at Stella and Bladon, about five miles above Newcastle, on the south side of the river. At the latter place is a refinery. The smelt mills are chiefly near Alston, where the mines are wrought.
    103 The quantities of lead exported from the river Tyne during the last four years, independent of manufactured white and red lead, are as follow, viz.:
  Tons. Cwt.
1802 8,609 18
1803 6,364 6
1804 10,35 2
1805 9,163 3
      West from Newcastle, about a quarter of a mile, is a manufactory for making red and white lead, sheet lead, and patent shot, one of the most extensive north of London, and the property of Messrs Ward, Walker, Parker, and Co., who have also extensive works in the same branch of manufacture in the neighbourhood of London.
      There are also extensive white and red lead manufactories in Gallowgate, Ouseburn, and at Bill Quay.
      The processes used in making red and white lead are so simple, that we have thought it would not be unentertaining to our readers to give a slight sketch of them.
      The first operation is to melt the bar-lead into pieces nearly two feet long, five inches broad, and so thin as to expose as great a surface as possible to the action of the acid. These pieces are then placed upon earthen pots, containing about half a pint of vinegar each, and are set in a layer of tanners spent bark, as close to each other as possible.
    104 Upon this layer of pots and lead are placed boards laid over with a further quantity of bark, and thus they are continued, layer - upon layer, till they arrive at their destined height. These strata continue covered for about three months. When the boards are removed, the lead is found nearly in the shape as when placed there, but quite altered in its nature, being perfectly corroded, quite white, and easily broken by the fingers into a white powder resembling chalk : The pieces are now thrown together into a large receiver full of water, having, about two-thirds up, a Partition with holes in it running across. A workman then with a large pole, and a strong head fixed upon it, stirs, beats, and breaks them, by which means the corroded lead divides and falls to the bottom of the receiver. This part of the operation was formerly done dry, and proved extremely fatal to the health of the people employed. From the dust and particles of the lead injuring the constitution, few of the workmen lived beyond the age of forty years, but by now grinding the lead in water, this fatal part of the process is remedied. The blue lead is then taken away, melted, and undergoes a similar operation ; the white substance is taken to the mill and ground in the rough, by the power of a steam engine. The grinding is performed by the common blue mill stone; after it is ground, it is put into large tubs and elutriated, then put into flat dishes and dried. It is then fit for making into paint.
      There are six or more manufactories on the river Tyne, where colours of different kinds are made.
      In addition to that already named to be at Bladon, there is one at Bill Quay, about three miles eastward from Newcastle. The principal business of these refineries is to extract the silver from the lead produced in this country.
      The glass works in Newcastle, and on the river Tyne, may be considered as the most extensive branch of manufacture we have to boast of. The duty on this article is computed to produce an annual revenue to government of £200,000.
      It is very probable that the glass makers, who came to the banks of the Tyne from Flanders, and other countries on the continent, having traded with the merchants of Newcastle for coals for their Glasshouses, thought that the vicinity of the Tyne, which abounded in that mineral, would be their most eligible situation, and actually induced them to settle there. The leading families of ingenious glass makers were Henzells, Tyzacks, and Titeroys the latter of which is now extinct, but the Henzells and Tyzacks still continue to preside over the working part, though very few of the Tyzacks are now left, and workmen almost of every name may be found in this employment.
      It is remarkable that they frequently gave their children the appellation, of Peregrine, reminding them that they were wanderers from their native home.
    106 What is called the Mushroom, below the Glasshouse Bridge, is the site of the first Glass-house in Newcastle. Anno 1772, there appear to have been fully employed on the river Tyne, sixteen large glass works, viz. one for plate glass, three crown glass houses, five for broad or common window glass, two for white or flint glass, and five bottle houses. Since their first institution on the river, they have wonderfully improved in the quality of their various kinds of glass. There are now eight manufacturers of window glass, four of flint glass, and six of common green bottles.
      The principal establishments of this kind are carried on at Warburton Place, two miles south of Newcastle ; at Sheriff-Hill, nearly adjoining it ; and on the north side of Tyne, at St. Anthony's, Ouse-burn, and Skinnerburn.
     Extracting of tar from coal for laying upon ships, in place of the American and Norway tar, had been thought practicable for many years; it was reserved for Lord Dundonald first to offer it to the public as an article of traffic. It is now said to be very much in use, especially for ships destined for long voyages in warm climates; as it effectually prevents the perforations made in ships by the pipe worms. There are manufactories for coal tar at St. Peter's Quay, and at Bell's Close. Lamp Black is also manufactured at the same time.
      On both sides of the river Tyne are large manufactories for copperas, particularly at St. Anthony's and on the south side of Felling-shore. The pyrites, or brasses, so hurtful to the sale of coals, are carefully separated from them, and from their quantity, and the cheapness of small coal, render Newcastle a place particularly favourable for making this article.
      This is also made on the river Tyne, at Bill Quay, and other places.
       Is likewise manufactured here.
      There is a very extensive manufactory of soap in the Close.
      There are three extensive sugar refineries in Newcastle, and a considerable quantity of sugar is exported hence to Hamburgh.
      There are not now any salt manufactories in Newcastle. At Shields there is a considerable quantity of salt made, though not nearly so much as formerly.
      There are several salt springs in the neighbourhood of Newcastle particularly one at Birtley, about five miles south from Gateshead, where salt is made, another at Flatworth colliery, near North Shields, and one at Walker, near Newcastle. It is said that during the great plague, some centuries ago, which swept away some thousands of persons at Newcastle and Shields, but few died who lived near the salt works.
        There are many fisheries on the Tyne for salmon, and in former years they were, in favourable seasons, very productive.
The greatest part used to be caught about New-burn, four miles above Newcastle. The fish are exposed for sale on the Sandhill, at the Maison Dieu, but a considerable part are pickled, kitted, and exported to London. Of late years, from the great increase of lead, copperas, and other manufactories upon the banks of the Tyne, as well as from the great increase of craft upon the river, the fisheries have very much diminshed. Not forty years ago, fish of large size, could have been bought for 1½d. per lb. whereas of late years, it has been sold for 1s. 2s. and even 3s. 6d. per lb. Mr Brand tells us, in his history of Newcastle, that there used to be in indentures, a stipulation between parents of apprentices and their masters, that they were not to dine upon salmon above twice a week.
      On Gateshead Fell there are several quarries of grindstone wrought, great quantities of which are exported, and indeed from hence almost all the continent is supplied with this article.
       The number of wind, water, and steam mills, for grinding corn, in and about Newcastle, is probably greater than that of any single town in the kingdom. Indeed the number of wind mills, forms a striking object on approaching Newcastle. Steam mills however claim a pre-eminence on account of the expedition and greater certainty with which they may be worked, and are best adapted for this neighbourhood, where coals are so plentiful. The number of steam mills on the river Tyne for grinding corn amounts to seven.
     There is an extensive manufactory of this description in Newcastle. It is situated at Ouseburn, and is appropriated to the spinning of linen yarn.
     There are many public breweries in Newcastle and its vicinity, of ale, beer and porter. The latter has only been introduced here of late years, as an article of manufacture.
      There are four newspapers printed weekly in Newcastle ; the Courant, the Chronicle, and the Advertiser, on Saturdays; and the Tyne Mercury, on Tuesdays.
      The principal inns and taverns in Newcastle, as posting houses, are Turner's, Queen's head, Pilgrim Street, Loftus's, Turk's head, Bigg Market, and Grieveson's, Crown and Thistle, Groat Market. Though not a posting house, Mrs Atkinson's, the Shakespear Tavern, Mosley Street, affords very good accommodations to travellers.
      In Newcastle there are hardly any houses coming properly within the description of a coffee house, as in London most of these called by that name being rather subscription rooms, devoted to the use of subscribers, or to such others only as are previously introduced by them.
BANKS. 111
      There are four banking houses in Newcastle, The old bank; Sir M. White Ridley, Bart. Bell and Gibson, at the east end of Mosley Street. The Tyne bank ; Sir Wm. Loraine, Bart. Baker, Pearson, Maude, and Loraine, at the west end of Mosley Street. The Newcastle bank; Messrs R. J. Lambton, Bulman, Fenwick and Pybus, in Dean Street. The Northumberland bank ; Messrs Batson, Scott, Clark, and Co. Tyne Bridge end.
Goods are forwarded to and from all places by the following wharfingers:
Nichol and Ludlow, High Crane.
Thomas Robson, Quay.
Joseph Snowball, Folly.
Thomas Snaith, Broad Chare.
Bradshaw and Hood, Quay.
Wm. Anderson and Son, Pilgrim Street.
      There are twenty packets and other vessels, employed in the conveyance of goods and passengers to and from London, and a number of vessels to and from all the other principal ports in the kingdom.
      There are several covered passage boats, called coinfortables, which go every tide to and from South and North Shields.—They have good accommodations, and are fine sailing boats. There are also open boats every day that go to most places where the river is navigable, for the purpose of conveying goods and passengers.
      The London waggon sets out every day, except Sunday, from the Bird-in-Bush yard, in Pilgrim Street, and conveys goods to all the intermediate places on the great road from York to London.
      The Edinbro' and Glasgow waggon sets out from the same place on the same days.
      The Leeds waggon sets out from the Manor Chare, the same days, and conveys goods also to London, and the different places on the road.
      The carriers for Carlisle, the different towns in Cumberland, and the adjoining counties in Scotland, arrive and set out every day, Saturdays and Sundays excepted. They stand in the Side and Sandhill.
      The carts for Hexham and Alston stand at the same place, and set out Mondays and Fridays.
      The Berwick and Alnwick waggon sets out Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, from Pilgrim Street.
      The Barnard Castle, Bishop Auckland, and Stain-drop carriers stand on the Sandhill, and set out every Friday.
      The Durham and Stockton carriers set out from the Sandhill, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
      The Sunderland waggons, from the Side, set out Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.
      The Darlington carriers set out on Fridays, from the Sandhill.
      The Morpeth carriers are in town Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.
There are also many carriers from the towns and villages in Northumberland, not already mentioned, which are in town on Thursdays, and are to be found in the Bigg Market and Pilgrim Street.
      The Charlotte sets out for London, by way of Borough Bridge, every morning at eight, and arrives tho third morning at nine o'clock.
     The High Flyer sets out at nine in the morning, stops at York that night, and arrives in town the third day at two in the afternoon.
     The Union sets out for Edinbro', by way of Coldstream, thrice a week, at five in the morning.
     The High Flyer sets out for Edinbro', by way of Berwick, every morning.
     The Carlisle coach sets out thrice a week for Carlisle, by way of Hexham, at eight in the morning.
      The Edinbro' Mail sets out every morning at ten o'clock for London, and every afternoon at two for Edinbro'.
      The Telegraph sets out every morning at five o'clock, for Leeds and London.
      Shields stages set our almost every hour, from eight in the morning till five in the evening.
      The Morpeth stage sets out every evening at six, and returns next morning at twelve.
The Durham and. Sunderland stages set out at four in the afternoon, and return next morning at eleven.
N. B. There are no hackney coaches in Newcastle, but sedan chairs are much in use.
      AMONG the numerous articles exported from the Tyne, that which claims the first notice is coal, a particular account of which, and the quantities annually produced, will be found under the heading of coal trade.
    The other principal exports are glass of all kinds, silver bullion, pig lead, red and white lead, lead shot, butter, pickled salmon, bacon, hams, copperas, grindstones, flagstones, firestones, cinders or coke, cast and wrought iron and steel, ale, beer and porter, earthenware, flour, painters' colours, starch, Prussian blue, sal-ammoniac, soda, paper, watch glasses, leather, gloves, lamp black, whale oil, coal tar, coal oil, refined sugars, canvas, &c.
      The principal articles imported into the Tyne, are wine, spirits, fruit, tobacco, cotton, staves, timber, masts, plank, tar, iron, deals, corn, sugar, hemp, flax, smalts, linen yarn, hides, &c.
      IN the year 1772, the number of ships entered in this port was as follows, viz:
  Number Tons
Coastwise 810 77,880
Foreign 140 18,650
Total 950 96,530
      In the year 1805, there were entered, with goods,
  Number Tons
Coastwise 1452 150,685
Foreign (British Vessels) 163 25,270
Foreign (Foreign Vessels) 150 14,363
Total 1765 190,318
      In ballast, from abroad,
  Number Tons
British Vessels 66 11,138
Foreign Vessels 35 4,334
Total 101 15,472
      The return of colliers and other vessels, in ballast, coastwise, is not included in the above statement. September, 1805, there were belonging to the port  of Newcastle, including Blyth, &c.
  Number Tons
Ships ----- 768 165,883

       THIS remarkable piece of antiquity has been known by various names. It first bore that of Agricola, afterwards the Picts' Wall, which indeed appears very improper, as they had no share in the work, next Hadrian's, though that which he erected was only a bank of earth, and lastly Severus' Wall, which certainly is the most proper, as he erected the stone wall, part of which remains.
In the year 84, after Agricola, the Roman general, had overrun Britain, he led his soldiers into Scotland against Galgacus, who was encamped upon the Grampian hills, gave them battle, defeated, and drove them back into the Highlands.
      To prevent such inroads in future, he erected what is called the first wall, though it consisted only of a bank of earth and a ditch, on the borders of which, at unequal distances, he built a range of castles. This work begins at about three miles and a half from Newcastle, near a village called Wallsend, and ends at about thirteen miles from Carlisle.
      About thirty seven years afterwards, anno 121, the emperor Hadrian repaired the works of Agricola, and strengthened them by some additions of his own.
    117 These joined the small ditch of Agricola, which lay towards the north, all their works running nearly parallel.
      About eighty seven years from the completion of Hadrian's works, Severus, acquiring the imperial purple, after two years spent in settling his affairs on the continent, came into Britain, and penetrating into Scotland, after several skirmishes, which were generally in favor of the Romans, he concluded a peace.
      Severus, though now at rest, knowing well the restless disposition of the warlike Picts, resolved, in the year 200, to secure his conquest by a rampart of such strength and magnitude as would effectually prevent these incursions in future. To accomplish this, he employed his soldiers, along with the well affected natives, during the period of ten years, in building a wall of stone, guarded by a fosse, which should run parallel with those of Agricola and Hadrian, and make one compact work. This wall was about eight feet thick and twelve feet high to the battlements, which rose about four feet more, with a ditch to the north, thirty six feet wide and fifteen deep.
Severus constructed three kinds of fortifications along the line of wall, viz. stations, castles, and turrets. There appear to have been eighteen stations with seventeen intervals, at about four miles distant each. These were fortified, were about one hundred and thirty six yards square, and were designed for residence as well as guard.
     Of castles there were eighty one, called mile castles, being nearly a mile asunder. There were about four of these between every station, and were each about ninety six feet square. The wall formed the north side of the castles, as well as of the stations. 118
     Of turrets, small castles or watch towers, which were distant from each other about three hundred yards, there were about three hundred and thirty. They were about twelve feet square, and being so near each other, the sound of the voice or trumpet could be distinctly heard from one to the other, and so be communicated the whole length of the wall in a very short time.
The exact length of time these united works took to finish them remains, and probably will ever remain, unknown. It is generally supposed to have been nearly thirty years.
      Constantine, who reigned towards the close of the fourth century, first neglected the wall. Having collected the flower of the British youth, he passed over with them into France, and left this country in a defenseless state. The wall was again broken, and the enemy entered, spreading desolation among the people, who, with their defenders, had lost their energy.
  119  Theodocius began to reign in 402. In his time the Romans withdrew from Britain, and the Picts and Scots again made inroads. The inhabitants, in distress, applied to the Romans for assistance. A legion was sent, who beat back the invaders, but the Roman empire being at that period in a convulsed state, they were ordered back and returned no more, after a residence of four hundred and eighty eight years from the landing of Julius Caesar. Thus from this period the wall went to decay, after having remained two hundred years, and was never after effectually repaired.
      Having thus given a general history of the Wall from its building to the period of its being neglected, we shall now enter upon a more minute description of these celebrated remains of Roman power.
        This station is about three miles and a half from Newcastle, and appears to have been the first station of the Roman troops appointed to guard and garrison the wall. It was, says Brand, perhaps the first station of the first cohort of the Lergi, and stood at a short distance from the village of Wallsend, and a little to the eastward of Carville House, near the present residence of John Buddle, Esq.
      In digging for a foundation to a house a few years ago; we are informed that in turning up the soil, bones, horns, and fragments of vases, arms, &c. appeared.
  Among other discoveries, was that, of a causeway leading to a wharf, perfectly visible and distinct, on the bank of the river. The wall terminating at this place, the southern and eastern sides of the fort or castrums were correctly traced, and the fosse on the east side was perfectly visible. A little further south-west, on digging clay to make bricks, the foundations of many buildings were discovered; and coming to some deep trenches, or, ditches, numbers of human skeletons and bones were found. This was probably the burying place belonging to the encampment of the legions stationed here, and which occupied a large space of ground, and served either for interring the dead, or committing them to the funeral pile. This opinion is corroborated by an observation of Dr. Horsley, who says, that the Romans, in choosing the situation for the vast undertaking of building the wall, fixed the station at Wallsend, with its southern rampart facing the sun, and sloping quite down to the river Tyne.
      Proceeding westward to Newcastle, from the first station, the wall passes Carville House, late Cousins', to a stile in the valley, and so on towards Byker Hill. The ditch about twelve yards wide. Before you come to Byker, a hedge runs in the ditch, a considerable part of which has been lately levelled by the proprietor of the adjoining land for the purpose of cultivation.
    Leaving the wind-mill at Byker Hill, it proceeds on towards Ousebum, and by the Redbarns to Newcastle. 121
     All authors who have treated of the Roman antiquities in Britain have uniformly affirmed, that Severus' wall ran quite through Newcastle. " It is most certain," says Camden, in his Britannia, " that the rampart and afterwards the wall of Severus passed through Newcastle ; and at Pampedon, or Pandon-gate, now taken down, there still remains, as it is thought, one of the little turrets of that very wall." Another antiquary, Mr Grey, says, that the Wall-Knoll was part of the Roman wall. "The Wall on the Knoll, or eminence, can only be understood of the Roman wall, (says Mr Bourne,) because it had this name from very ancient times, long before the building of the town wall, to which it lies quite contiguous." On the height, above Pandon, stands the Carpenter's Tower. Mr Bourne affirms this to have been one of the Roman towers, which, he says, could easily be discerned before the taking down of the turrets, to convert it into a meeting house for the company of ship wrights.
     It has also been uniformly handed down by tradition, that the Roman wall passed from Wallsend to Byker, over Ouseburn, to Sally Port, Wall Knoll, St. Nicholas' church, the Vicars' garden, and the present site of the West-gate. Inhabitants, of no great age, can recollect, that from the narrow street called the Low Bridge, to the east end of St. Nicholas' church yard, a bridge of great height, constructed of large and massive stones, evidently of Roman architecture, was thrown over a fosse or dean, now converted into a handsome street, called Dean Street.
Pons Aelii
      Mr Hutton, in his account of the Roman wall, speaking of the situation of the second station, observes,"Warburton proves that Severus' wall lies a little to the north of St. Nicholas' church, that the wall which passes through the church porch was the eastern wall of the station itself, and that of Severus was the northern; thus having found two walls of this great square, the other two will follow. He justly allows the medium of a station to be an area of one hundred and thirty six yards square, which, in this case, will reach near the present castle. This points out the station."
      Leaving the second station, the wall runs from the West-gate to Carlisle, with little variation, nearly upon the line of the military road, many miles of which indeed are formed upon it. A few yards before we reach the first turnpike-gate, it crosses the road and continues on our left till we reach nearly the one mile stone, when it forms a part of the turnpike road itself. About forty yards more to the left the works of Agricola and Hadrian make their appearance. These invariably adjoin each other, and Severus' wall runs nearly parallel. 123 The two former lie on the north, in many places not more than twenty yards distant, in some places nearly a mile. The medium may be taken at about fifty yards. Passing on to Benwell Hill, we arrive at the

      No vestige of which remains, except an unevenness of the ground, which discovers its situation.
     At Denton Burn, at the bottom of Benwell Hill, and a little south of the road, a fragment of wall appears, supposed to be a piece of Severus'. It is about twelve yards long, and is nine feet thick, has three courses of stones on one side and four on the. other. An apple tree grows on its top. Passing Chapel House, Castle Steeds, Walbottle, Newburn Dean, Throcklow, and Heddon on the Wall, we come to the
      Through which Severus' wall appears to have passed. Marks of the platform of the station appear, and the situation of its ramparts and other buildings may still be traced out.
      At Harlow Hill Severus' wall is on the left, passing through the houses, and the ditch forming the road.
Passing Wall Houses, at the fourteenth mile stone; we come to Sir E. Blackett's, who has converted a small farm house into a little castle, and proceeding on by Halton Shields, we come to the
     This is in a low situation, which is unusual for a station. Few traces of it are left. A short distance further is Portgate, where two roads cross each other, one the Roman Watling-street, the other the line of the wall. The wall being formed after the other, a gateway was left in it as a thorough-fare, hence the name Portgate.
     We now arrive at the twentieth mile stone from Newcastle, and find the most perfect part of the wall on the whole road. It is in a field, a few yards on the left, and is about thirteen yards long and seven feet high. Nine or ten years ago it was two hundred and twenty-four yards long, but the proprietor, Henry Tulip, Esq. took the greatest part down to erect a farm house. The wall now continues considerably to the left of the road, and crosses the North Tyne about a quarter of a mile distant from the bridge at ChoIlerford. It then ascends a few hundred yards to the
      This station is rather low, but appears to have been necessarily fixed here to guard the pass of the river. It is at present in grass, and has covered nearly eight acres. Passing this station, we come to the seat of Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. who has the honour to be the proprietor of the works of two emperors. 125 Ascending the hill to Walwick, we pass the seat of Henry Tulip, Esq. Here the works of Agricola and Hadrian are still on the left. Severus' crosses the turnpike road in the village, and appears on the right, where there is a piece of the wall three feet high, but without facing stones. Passing on, we easily trace Agricola, Hadrian and Severus. At Towertay, Severus' wall appears with two or three courses of facing stones. We now arrive at the
      A farm house now stands here upon the works of Hadrian and Agricola. The station joins the house, and its ramparts yet remain. Upon the bill, ascending to Carrow, we see the foundation of Severus' wall, and in one place three or four courses of facing stones appear for about fifteen yards.
      At the twenty-seventh mile from Newcastle the two works separate and continue nearly a mile distant for ten miles; Agricola and Hadrian pursuing the lower grounds, while Severus ascends the more elevated.
Near here the wall appears about six feet high, but without facing stones. Here is also the platform of a castle, and part of the wall six courses high and about four feet long. About three hundrect yards further we come to the foundation of another building, adjoining the wall.
    126  About half a mile before we arrive at Shewenshields, the remains of a castle appear twenty yards by thirty. It appears to have had four turrets. After leaving the great road about a mile, we come to a gap in the mountain, an inlet to the moss troopers; a small castle appears to have stood in the meadow, near the foot of the hill, to guard the pass.
      About a mile beyond Shewenshields is the Busy Gap, so named from the frequency of the Picts and Scots breaking through and surprizing the Romans and Britons. It is a break in the mountain over which the wall ran, and is now filled up by a common field gate.     
     Passing on, we come to the
      Thirty miles from Newcastle. This appears to have been the largest station in the whole course of the wall, covering about fifteen acres. It declines to the south, and its ramparts are plainly traced.
     On the rock, opposite Crag Lough, the wall is three feet high, but without facing stones; the ditch is perfect. At another place here the wall is eleven courses high on one side, but only from three to four on the other, and continues, for about sixty yards, eight feet high. The
     127  Mr Hutton observes, p. 244, that "there are four stations of the eighteen smaller than the rest, which are detached from the wall, and lie considerably to the south; viz. Little Chesters, Carvoran, Cambeck Fort, and Watch Cross. A Roman road went from Walwick Chesters directly to Little Chesters, and left. Carrowburgh and Housesteads much on the right. It then proceeded to Carvoran, leaving Great Chesters on the right, and directed its course to Cambeck Fort, leaving Burdoswald to the right, and then took its course to Watch Cross. All these four stations lie to the south, totally distinct from Severus' wall or stations. Agricola must have formed them for the accommodation of his works."
      At Walisgreen Severus takes a turn, and continues about three feet high, broken as usual. The ditch is very distinct, as we ascend the hill to the
       This station is thirty-five miles from Newcastle, and, except a farm house, no buildings remain. The wall is here about three feet high. Not far distant we come to a well famous on account of one of the Saxon kings being baptized here. The wall is again visible at Walton Crag, where may be seen about two yards, with eight courses of facing stones. Three miles from the last, we arrive at the
      This appears to have been a small station, and is rather out of the line of the wall. Its situation is a valley, and here the Tippal runs through the wall, which opening caused Thirlwall Castle (Thorough Wall, from the Scots breaking through) in after ages to be built. The situation is well chosen, but the castle is far gone to decay.
      Within half a mile of Mumps Hall is a hollow in the mountain, called Stone Gap, where the Scots broke through. Here the Tippal falls into the North Tyne. About three miles westward the river Irthing crosses the wall and falls into the Eden. After crossing the rivulet Poltross, the wall again appears. Crossing the Irthing, and ascending the mountain, we come to the
      This station is forty-three miles from Newcastle, and is elevated. No Roman buildings remain, though the situations of many may be traced. At a place on the common, several yards of the wall appear, with facing stones from five to seven courses high. All along this common may be observed the mounds, the wall, and the ditches. At Hare Hill, (tho' this, it should be remarked, is situate in a valley) the wall is ten feet high and five yards long, but the facing stones are gone. 129 Near this place the wall is five feet high, with the foundation of a castle twenty yards square.
      Proceeding a little further the banks and ditch are perfect. Over the valley, for the space of two hundred yards, the wall is four feet high, and a boundary hedge grows on its top.
      Passing on from Haden a new wall is erected upon the site of the old one, with part of the old materials. We now soon arrive at the
      This station derives its present name from the river Cambeck, and is fifty miles from Newcastle. The works are wholly gone, a gentleman having lately dug up the foundation and built a mansion upon the spot.
The fort of Castle Steads stands at so great a distance from all of the works, that it appears rather to have been erected by Agricola, as it is nearest to him. Severus most probably afterwards employed it as a station. It is the third reputed station that stands out of the line. The works now pass Newton, Old Walton, and Wall Head, a single house in a low situation.
      This is the largest station in the line, and is fifty-three miles from Newcastle. It lies upwards of a mile south of all the works, and is the fourth which is detached from the wall. 130 It is supposed these four southern stations were so situated to guard the Roman road, which proceeds from Walwick Chesters, and takes a semicircular course for about six miles, and joins the wall near Wallby. A branch of this road runs up to Thirlwall castle. It also communicates with the two detached stations, Little Chesters and Corvoran, extends to two other out stations, and passing through Crake's town and Burtham, it reaches Cambeck Fort, and then through Newton and Irthington, it goes to Watch Cross, Low Crossby and Wallby.
    We now pass Bleatern, between which place and Wallby the common road, not the turnpike, is on the wall itself, with the ditch on the right. We now pass Drawdikes, and before we come to Stanwix pass through a field where Severus' wall is the footway. We have now come to the
      At this station no traces remain of its former buildings. We here lose Agricola and Hadrian, and Severus', ditch which is nearly obliterated, can only be seen about two hundred yards long, part of which is a bye lane, and part in an inclosure, both point to the station and down the precipice, to the river, where it crosses the Eden, to Carlisle, bending considerably to the right, evidently to cross at the narrowest part, and to include the city. The wall points nearly to the north foot of the castle keeping the Eden on the right to the sea. The
      This station is in a low meadow, about two hundred yards east of the church, called the old castle, and about five miles west from Carlisle. In the belfry of the church may be seen a door, made of iron bars, once the prison door of the castle.
About a mile distant, on the right, are the sands where Edward the first encamped his army, when he marched northward to reduce Scotland. On the spot where he died, being carried off by a flux, Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk, proprietor of the land, erected a monument in 1685.
      The wall appears to have crossed the road at Burgh, and proceeded a considerable distance on the left, to avoid the reach of both marsh and tide. We now arrive at the
      This station is nine miles from Carlisle and four from Boulness, the termination of the wall. The castle is situate on a rising ground at the extremity of the marsh. The Dacre family erected this building, about two centuries ago, with the materials of the old castle, and on the old foundation.
 132 The site of the station, now an orchard, may be plainly traced, as also the course of Severus' wall, which is from the south of the marsh, crossing the turnpike road at the station, and proceeding on the right, where we perceive his ditch about fourteen yards wide. About three miles further, the wall crosses the road, and continues one hundred yards on the left. At the end of the lane here the works of Agricola and Hadrian, it is supposed, terminated.
      Within one mile of Boulness, and a short distance on the left, Severus' wall appears for the last time, about five hundred yards long, and three feet high. A fence grows on its top. in two places it is six feet high, but without facing stones. We now come to the
      This station is entirely gone, the spot only remaining which marks it, upon a rock on the verge of the Solway, thirteen miles from Carlisle.
      Whether Severus could have rendered this extremity of the wall more secure, by carrying it further into the water, we will not determine but the Scots frequently came over the Forth at low tide in parties, and committed great devastation; often murdering the inhabitants, burning their houses, and carrying off their cattle, &c.
    Having thus given a brief description of the present state of the wall, throughout its whole line, the Editor begs to acknowledge himself considerably indebted to Mr Hutton, for the asistance that gentleman's "History of the Roman Wall" afforded his own personal observations, to which work he begs to refer those who wish for a more particular account..
   COAL TRADE. 134
      AS this subject is one of the most important and interesting that comes under our notice, we trust a pretty copious account will not be unacceptable.
      It is generally agreed, that our cannel coal is the lapis ampelites of the Romans, though it seems to have been used by them only for making toys, bracelets, &c. but of that common fuel which we denominate coal, the Romans were entirely ignorant. It is certain that it is not, as some have imagined, the lapis obsidianus of Pliny, about which there have been great disputes : nor the gagates, or jet, which others again have taken for the lapis obsidianus ; though the lightness and texture show plainly that it is neither stone nor coal. In fact, there are no beds of it in the compass of Italy ; the great line of that fuel seems to sweep round the globe, from north-east to south-west; not ranging at a distance, even from the south-easterly parts of our island, as is generally imagined, but actually visiting Brabant and- France, and yet avoiding Italy.
      It appears that coals have been wrought in the vicinity of Newcastle at a very early period. 135 The author of the Britannia Romana tells us, that there was a colliery not far from Condercum, now Benwell, supposed to have been worked by the Romans.
      But history affords us more certain information during the reigns of the successors of William the Conqueror.
      Henry III granted to the freemen of this town liberty to dig coal in its vicinity in 1239, and about seven years afterwards it first obtained the name of sea-coal.
      The coal trade made rapid progress during the reign of king John; but it is remarkable that though coal had for some time been found to be the most valuable species of fuel, it was prohibited at London, in 1306, by royal proclamation. Brewers, smiths, and other artificers, who had occasion for strong fires, had found their account in substituting this hot, clear, and lasting fossil, in the place of wood and charcoal. The two houses of parliament however pronounced the use of it a public nuisance, and finding their prohibition disregarded, they requested the king to issue a commission of oyer and terminer, with strict orders to punish delinquents, by fines and the demolition of their furnaces and kilns. Succeeding parliaments, and particularly those of our own time, have thought very differently of this valuable article of commerce, and a few years afterwards, it was not only used by manufacturers, but for every domestic purpose.
In the petitions to parliament, in 1321 and 1322, we find that 10s. worth of coals had been used at the king's coronation.
  136 Edward III in 1351, granted a licence to the burgesses of Newcastle, to dig coals and stones in a place called Castle-field, without the walls ; and a colliery at Elswick, near Newcastle, was demised about the same period, to Adam Colewell, for £5 yearly rent.
      In 1421, the increasing consequence of the coal trade appears, by an act of parliament made that year, which directed that all keels should be measured by commissioners, to be appointed by the king, and should have their burthen marked upon them, in order that the king might not be defrauded of his duty of 2d. per chaldron, by false measurement. Here we may remark, that the term keel, is a very ancient name, of Saxon derivation, for a ship or vessel.
      In 1538, a lease, for eight years, of two coal pits at Elswick, was granted to Christopher Midford, by the prior of Tynemouth, at the annual rent of £50. About this time, coals were sold at Newcastle for 2s. 6d. per chaldron, and at London for about 4s. per chaldron.
      In 1582, queen Elizabeth obtained a lease of the manor of Gateshead and Whickham, with the coal mines, common wastes, and parks of the bishop of Durham, for ninety-nine years, at the annual rent of £90. This, commonly called the grand lease, occasioned an advance in the price of coals ; but, it apears that afterwards it was procured by the earl of Leicester, the queen's then favorite. It was next assigned to the famous Sutton, who founded the charter house in London, and the price of coals was raised to 6s. per chaldron.
     137 Thomas Sutton, Esq. made an assignment of the above grand lease, for the sum of £12,000 to Sir William Liddle and others, for the use of the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne : coals are said to have been advanced on this occasion to 7s. and afterwards to 8s. per chaldron.
      In 1590, the price of coals appears to have been advanced to 9s. per chaldron, upon which the lord mayor complained to lord treasurer Burleigh, that the society in Newcastle, called Free Hosts, to whom the grand lease was first assigned for the use of the town, consisting of about sixty persons, transferred their right to about eighteen or twenty, who engrossed all other collieries, viz.: Stella, the bishop's colliery, Ravensworth colliery, &c. He requested that all the collieries might be opened and wrought, and that the price should not exceed 7s. per chaldron.
     During the reigns of Elizabeth, and the four succeeding ones, parliament made various acts and regulations respecting the coal trade of Newcastle: In 1648, coal was so excessively dear in London, that many of the poor died for want of fuel. Sir Arthur Haslerig, governor of Newcastle, was blamed on this occasion, for laying a tax of 4s. per chaldron on coals; the year following, the house of commons referred an inquiry, into this matter, to the council of state, recommending it at the same time to a committee of the navy to inquire into the claim of ls. per chaldron, on coals, and how it might be taken off.
    138   In 1655, coals are said to have been sold in London for above £1 per chaldron. About three -hundred and twenty keels appear to have been employed at this time, in the coal trade upon the river Tyne, each of which carried, annually, eight hundred chaldrons, Newcastle measure, on ship-board. By an act of parliament made 1667, after the great fire in London, a duty of 1s. per chaldron was granted to the lord mayor of that city, to enable him to rebuild the churches, and other public edifices but this being not sufficient, it was made 3s. per chaldron, to continue twenty years.
      In 1677, Charles II granted to the duke of Richmond, a duty of 1s. per chaldron on coals. This impost continued in the family of Richmond till the year 1800, when it was purchased by government for the annual sum of £19,000 payable to the duke and his heirs. It appears that the duty at present, produces to government £25,000 annually.
      In 1703, in reply to an inquiry of a committee of the house of commons, appointed to receive proposals, and prepare heads of a bill for the increase of seamen, and the speedy manning of the royal navy, sent to the masters of the Trinity House of Newcastle, concerning the number of ships necessary for the coal trade, it was stated, that six hundred ships, each of eighty Newcastle chaldrons, with four thousand five hundred men, were requisite for carrying on that great branch of commerce. Coals at that time were at 11s. per chaldron.
    139  Next year it appears that there had been four hundred keels, each of eight Newcastle chaldrons, employed on the river Tyne, and above one thousand five hundred keelmen.
      The trade thus rapidly increased, till it acquired its present importance. The following account of coals exported from the river Tyne, in the years 1802, 3, 4, and 5, will give an idea of the amazing extent, to which it is now carried.
    Coastwise Overseas Plantations
In the year 1802 494,488 41,157 2844
  1803 505,137 42,808 1516
  1804 579,929 48,737 3852
  1805 552,827 47,213 2360
      This is exclusive of the quantity exported from the harbours immediately adjoining Newcastle, viz Sunderland, which exports, annually, about three hundred thousand chaldrons, and Blyth and Hartley, which also export a considerable quantity; neither is notice taken of the quantity consumed in the town and neighbourhood.
      The following observations, made by an ingenious author, Dr. Mc'Nab, are interesting : He mentions, that the sum expended in materials for boring and sinking for coal, such as wood, iron, ropes, &c. independent of the money paid for the exclusive privilege of working, amounts in some collieries to upwards of £30,000 per annum.
      The following statement of the number of persons employed, and dependant on the coal trade, on the rivers Tyne and Wear, in the year 1792, is tolerably correct.
Upon the river Tyne are employed, under and above ground, as follows:
Men and boys 6704
Fitters and runners 103
Keelmen and boys, coal boatmen, &c. 1547
Trimmers, ballast heavers, &c. 1000
Pilots and Foymen 500
Total on the Tyne 9854
It will require one hundred and fifty thousand
tons of shipping to carry five hundred
thousand chaldrons of coals to market,
which will employ men and boys, including supernumerary seamen
Carpenters, ropers, and smiths, to keep the
keels in repair
Carpenters, ropers, smiths, sail-makers, mast
and block-makers, boat builders, &c. to
keep the ships in repair
Purveyors, necessary to supply the keels and
ships with provisions
Coal factors, merchants, clerks, lightermen,
meters, barge-men, coal heavers, cartmen,
and porters
Many of these persons have families, suppose.
them one-fourth part of the above, and that each family consisted of three persons more than are actually employed, they will
amount to
Those employed on the collieries on the
Wear, are estimated at
Total employed or supported by the coal
trade of the rivers Tyne and Wear

      To give an idea how long there is a probability of Great Britain's being supplied with coal from the rivers Tyne and Wear, this writer further remarks: 1. That the seams of coal, which are now worked at Newcastle and Sunderland, are equal to a seam or bed of fifteen miles by twenty miles. 2. That this seam, on an average, is at least four feet and a half in thickness. 3. That one sixth part of the above extent is sufficient for pillars, &c. in the mines : and 4th it appears, by experiment made by Dr. Watson, bishop of Landaff, that a cubic yard of coal weighs a ton, or twenty cwt.
  Lond. Chals.
The consumption of sea coal in London, is generally 900,000
Coastwise 700,000
The export of foreign consumption 250,000
Consumed at Newcastle, Shields, and Sunderland 450,000
Total of the annual consumption of coals from the rivers Tyne and Wear 2,300,000
The number of tons in the above quantity, taking the chaldron at twenty-seven cwt., is 3,100,000
Now a ton weight of coal occupies in the earth the space of one cubic yard, the number of cubic yards in the square mile, is 3,097,600
The beds or seams of coal are, on an average, four feet and a half in thickness, which increases the above number of cubic yards in the square mile, by half the number of Square yards, to 1,548,800
And hence the square mile of the beds or  seams of coal I am describing contains of cubic yards and tons of coals 4,645,000
A deduction of one-sixth, for pillars, &c. 800,000
The number of tons per square mile 5,445,000
I have already stated that the annual consumption of coals, from these rivers, amounts to 3,100,000
      It therefore appears that a square mile is a sufficient source of consumption for one year and a quarter. I have already described the length and breadth of these seams of coal, as consisting of twenty miles by fifteen; making an area of three hundred square miles, and consequently a source of consumption for three hundred and seventy-five years, but we shall state it as low as three hundred years.
      It has been stated that the capital employed in the coal trade is as follows :
In the collieries £1,030,000
In shipping £1,400,000
Capital employed by the London
coal merchants
Total      £3,130,000
       From this detail, the coal trade must appear to every one, not only in a local but in a national point of view, whether as a nursery of excellent seamen for the British navy, or in a more extended view, as the means of employment for so many thousands of industrious working people : 144 In short, coals, though not an exclusive, may with propriety be styled a peculiar blessing to Great Britain, from their great plenty, their acknowledged excellence, and their being found in such places as are conveniently situated for exportation. Nor is there any danger of the export trade being lessened even by the heavy duties that have been laid upon them for the foreign consumption being founded in necessity with regard to the manufacturers, we need be in no fear of the markets delining.
      Besides the important advantages already enumerated, others deserve to be noticed.
      Coal is in many respects, and in a very high degree, useful to the landed interest; not only by greatly enhancing the real value of those lands in which it is found, and those through which it is necessary to pass, from the works to the places where it is shipped, but from the general improvements it has occasioned by the wealth it has brought into the country.
      Coal is a solid, inflammable, and bituminous substance, commonly used for fuel: there are various kinds, the principal of which are,
      1. Common coal, also called sea, or pit coal. This very useful mineral abounds in the neighbourhood of Newcastle. It forms a black, solid, compact, but brittle mass, moderately hard, of a slaty structure, and cakes more or less during combustion.
      Its specific gravity is 1,25 to 1,37. Its component parts, according to Kirwan, are charcoal and bitumen, mixed with a small portion of argillaceous earth, and frequently blended with pyrites. 145
      2. Cannel coal. This mineral is found in Lancashire, and in different parts of Scotland, where it is known by the name of parrot, and sometimes splint. It is of a dull black colour, breaks easily in all directions; and, if broken transversely, presents -a smooth conchoidal surface :. it kindles easily, and burns with a bright white flame like a candle, which lasts but a short time ; hence it has been called cannel coal ; candle, in the Lancashire and Scotch dialects, being pronounced cannel. It is very apt to fly in pieces in the fire, but is-said to be deprived of this property by immersion in water, some hours previously to its being used. Being of a uniform hard texture, it is easily turned upon a lathe, and takes a good polish; hence it is often wrought into trinkets like jet. Specific gravity 1 ,232 to 1,426.It does not contain so large a quantity of charcoal or bitumen as the last mentioned, and has more earthy matter. The stone coal from Staffordshire is of similar quality.
      3. Killkenny coal has a specific gravity equal to 1,400. It contains a large quantity of bitumen; burns with less smoke and flame, and more intensely, though more slowly than cannel coal. The quantity of earth it contains does not exceed one-twentieth part of its weight ; but this kind of coal is frequently mixed with pyrites.
MINING   146
Strata of Coal.
      The terrestrial matters which compose the solid parts of the earth are disposed in strata, beds, or layers, the under surface of one bearing against or lying upon the upper surface of that below it, which last bears or lies on the next below in the same manner.
      These strata consist of very different kinds of matter, such as free stone, lime stone, metal stone, &c. Some of these strata are of a considerable thickness, being often found from fifty to sixty feet, or upwards, nearly of the same kind of matter from the superior to the inferior surface; others are found of the least thickness imaginable, one inch or less. All the strata are divided or parted from each other, horizontally, or by their even, smooth, polished surface, with very thin lamina of soft or dusty matter betwixt them, called the parting, which renders them easy to separate ; or else, only by the surfaces closely conjoined to each other, without any visible matter interposed: yet the different substances of each stratum is not in the least intermixed, though sometimes they adhere so strongly together, that it is very difficult to part or disjoin them ; in this last case, they are said to have a bad parting.
   147 Besides this principal division or parting, horizontally, there are, in some strata, secondary divisions or partings, separated or approaching towards a separation of the same stratum, into parts of different thicknesses, nearly parallel to each other, in the same manner as the principal partings divide their different strata from each other; but these secondary ones are not so strong or visible, nor make so effectual a parting as the principal ones do; and are only met with in such strata, as are not of an uniform hardness, texture or colour, from the upper to the under surface. There are other divisions, or partings, called backs, in almost every stratum, which cross the former horizontal ones longitudinally, and cut the whole stratum through its two surfaces into long rhomboidal figures. These again are crossed by others called cutters, running either in an oblique or perpendicular direction to the last mentioned backs, and also cut the stratum through its two surfaces. Both these backs and cutters generally extend from the upper or superior stratum down through several of the lower ones, so that these backs and cutters, together with the horizontal partings before mentioned, divide every stratum into innumerable cubic, prismatic, and rhomboidal figures, according to the thickness of the stratum, and the position and number of the backs and cutters. They sometimes have a kind of thin partition of dusty or soft matter in them, and sometimes none, like the first mentioned partings but the softer kind of strata generally have more backs and cutters than the harder kind, and they do not extend or penetrate through the others.
      In all places where the strata lie regularly, they are divided and subdivided in the manner above mentioned and sometimes in this manner extend through a pretty large district of country though it is often otherwise, for their regularity is frequently interrupted, and the strata broken and disordered by sundry chasms, breaches, or fissures, which are differently denominated, according to their various dimensions, and the matters with which they are filled, Viz. dikes, hitches, and troubles, which shall be explained in order.
      A dike is the largest kind of fissure. It seems to be nothing but a crack or breach of the solid strata, and are occasioned by one part of them being broken away, and fallen from the other. They generally run in a straight line for a considerable length, and penetrate from the surface to the greatest depth ever yet tried, in a direction sometimes perpendicular to the horizon, and sometimes obliquely. The same kind of strata are found lying upon each other in the same order, but the whole of them greatly elevated on the one side of the dike, and depressed on the other. These fissures are sometimes two or three feet wide, and sometimes many fathoms. If the fissure, or dike, he of any considerable width, it is generally filled with heterogeneous matter, different from that of the solid strata on each side of it.
 149 It is sometimes found filled with clay, gravel, or sand, sometimes with a confused mass of different kinds of stone laying edge-ways, and at other times with a solid body of free-stone, or even whin-stone.
      When the fissure is of no great width, suppose two or three feet, it is then usually found filled with a confused mixture of the different matters which compose the adjoining strata, consolidated into one mass. If the dike runs north and south, and the same kind of strata are found on the east side of the dike, in a situation with respect to the horizon ten or twenty fathoms lower than on the other side, it is then said to be a dip dike, or down cast dike, of ten or twenty fathoms to the eastward, or, counting from the east side, it is then said to be a rise dike, or upcast, of so many fathoms westward. If the strata on one side are not much higher or lower with respect to the horizon, than those on the other, but only broken off and removed to a certain distance, it is then said to be a dike of so many fathoms thick, and from the matter contained between the two sides of the fissure, or dike, it is denominated a clay dike, stone dike, &c.
      A hitch is only a fissure or dike of a smaller degree, by which the strata on one side arc not elevated, or separated from those on the other above one fathom. These hitches are denominated in the same manner as dikes, according to the number of feet they elevate or depress the strata. 150 There are dikes, though not often met with in coal countries, whose cavities are filled with spar, the ores of iron, lead, and other metallic or mineral matters; and it is pretty well known, that all metallic veins are nothing else than what in the coal countries are called dikes. The strata are generally found lying upon each other in the same order on one side of the dike, as on the other, as before mentioned, and nearly of the same thicknesses, appearing to have been originally a continuation of the same regular strata, and the dike only a breach, by some later accident, perpendicularly or obliquely through them, by which one part is removed to a small distance, and depressed to a lower situation than the other. But this is not the only alteration made in strata by dikes; for, generally, to a considerable distance, on each side of the dike, all the strata are in a kind of shattered condition, very tender, easily pervious to water, and debased greatly in their quality, and their inclination to the horizon often altered.
      Troubles may be denominated dikes of the smallest degree, for they are not a real breach, but only a tendency to it, which has not taken a full effect. When the regular course of the strata is nearly level, a trouble will cause a sudden and considerable ascent, and it either increases or alters the course to a contrary position.
  151 A trouble has this effect upon the strata in common with dikes, that it greatly debases them from their original quality; the partings are separated, the backs and cutters disjoined, and their regularity disordered; the original, cubic, and prismatic figures, of which the strata were composed, are broken, the dislocation filled with heterogeneous matter, and the whole strata are reduced to a softer and more friable state.
     The strata are seldom or never found to lie in a true horizontal situation ; but generally have an inclination or desent, called the dip, to some particular part of the horizon. If this inclination be to the eastward, it is called an east dip and a west rise ; and, according to the point of the compass to which the dip inclines, it is denominated, and the ascent or rise is to the contrary point. In some places it varies very little from the level; in others very considerably ; and in some so much, as to be nearly in a perpendicular direction. But whatever degree of inclination the strata have to the horizon, if not interrupted by dikes, hitches, or troubles, they are always found to lie in the first regular manner mentioned.
     152 They generally continue upon one uniform dip, until they are broken or disordered by a dike, &c. by which the dip is often altered, sometimes to a different part of the horizon, and often to an opposite point, so that on one side of the dike, if the strata have an east dip, on the other side they way have an east rise, which is a west dip; and, in general, any considerable alteration in the dip is never met with, but what is occasioned by the circumstances last mentioned.
     As some particular strata are found at some times to increase, and at other times to diminish in their thickness, whilst others remain the same, consequently they cannot be all parallel; yet this increase and diminution in their thickness come on very gradually. The strata are not found disposed in the earth according to their specific gravities ; for we often find strata of very dense matter, near the surface, and perhaps at fifty or even one hundred fathoms beneath, we meet with strata of not half the specific gravity of the first. A stratum of iron ore is very often found above one of coal, though the former has twice the gravity of the latter ; and, in short, there is such an absolute uncertainty in forming any judgment of the disposition of the strata from their specific gravities, that it cannot in the least be relied upon.
      It has been imagined by many, that hills and vallies are occasioned by these breaches in the strata before mentioned, called dikes; but this is contradicted by experience. If it was so, we should meet with dikes at the skirts of the hills, and by the sides of valleys, and the sea-shore, but instead of that, we generally find the strata lying as uniformly regular under hills and valleys, and beneath the bottom of the sea, as in most champaign countries. It may happen indeed, that a dike is met with in some of these places; but that being only a casual circumstance, can never be admitted as a general cause. 
153 The irregularities occasioned in the solid strata, by dikes, or other breaches, are commonly covered over and made even by those beds of gravel, clay, sand, or soil, which lie uppermost, and form the outward surface of the earth.
      Wherever these softer matters have been carried off, or removed by accident, as on the tops of hills and the sides of valleys, there the solid strata are exposed, and the dip, rise, and other circumstances may be easily examined ; but no certain conclusion can be drawn merely from the unevenness and inequalities of the outward surface.
      The preceding observations upon the general disposition of the solid strata, are equally applicable to the strata of coal.
     We shall next give an account of the several strata of coal, and also of stone, and other matters, which are usually connected with coal, and are found to have a particular affinity with it; and for sake of distinction, shall arrange them into six principal classes, which will include all the varieties of strata that have been found to occur in all those districts of country, both in Scotland and England, where coal abounds.
1. WHIN STONE. 154
      The strata of what is denominated whin-stone are the hardest of all others ; the angular pieces of it will cut glass ; it is of a very coarse texture, and, when broken across the grain, exhibits the appearance of large grains of sand, half vitrified ; it can scarcely be wrought, or broken in pieces, by common tools, without the assistance of gun powder; each stratum is commonly homogeneous in substance and colour, and cracked in the rock to a great depth. The most common colour of these strata are black or dark blue, yet there are others, ash coloured and light brown. Their thickness in all the coal countries are but inconsiderable, from five or six feet to a few inches. In the air it decays a little, leaving a brown powder, and in the fire it cracks, and turns to a reddish brown:
      Limestone is sometimes, though rarely, met with in collieries. It is well known; but from its resemblance in hardness and colour, is often mistaken for a kind of whin. Sometimes, particularly in hilly countries, the solid matter next the surface is found to be a kind of rotten whin ; but it may be noted, that this is only a mass of heterogeneous matter disposed upon the regular strata; and that beneath this, all the strata are found in as regular an order as where this heterogeneous matter does not occur.
2. POST STONE. 155
      This is a free stone of the hardest kind, and next to the lime stone, with respect to hardness and solidity. It is of a very fine texture, and, when broken, appears as if composed of the finest sand. It is commonly found in a homogeneous mass, though variegated in colour ; and, from its hardness, is not liable to injury from being exposed to the weather.
      Of this kind of stone there are four varieties, which may be distinguished by the colour : the most common is white post, which, in appearance, is like Portland stone, but considerably harder; it is sometimes variegated with spots of brown, red, or black.
      Grey post is also very common; it appears like a mixture of fine black and white sand : it is often variegated with brown and black streaks. The last mentioned appear like small clouds, composed of particles of coal.
      Brown or yellow post is often met with of different degrees of colour ; most commonly of the colour of light ochre, or yellow sand. It is as hard as the rest, and sometimes variegated with white and black streaks.
      Red post is generally of a dull red colour. This is but rarely met with; it is often streaked with white or black.
      All these lie in strata of different thicknesses, but commonly thicker than any other stratum whatever. They are separated from each other, and from other kinds of strata, by partings of coal, sand, or soft matter, of different colours, which are very distinguishable.
3. SAND STONE  156
       This is a free stone of a coarser texture than post, and not so hard; is so lax as to be easily pervious to water ; when broken, is apparently of a coarse sandy substance; is friable, and moulders to sand when exposed to the wind and rain; has frequently white shining spangles in it, and pebbles, or other small stones, enclosed in its mass. Of this, there are two kinds commonly met with, distinguished by their colours, grey and brown, which are of different shades, lighter or darker, in proportion to the mixture of white in them. It is most generally found in strata of considerable thickness, without many secondary partings; and sometimes, though rarely, it is sub-divided into layers as thin as the common grey slate. It has, generally, sandy or soft partings.
      This is a tolerably hard stratum, being, in point of hardness, next to sand stone ; generally solid, compact, of considerable weight, and of an argillaceous substance, containing many nodules or balls of iron ore, and yellow or white pyrites; its partings, on the surface of its strata, are hard, polished, and smooth as glass. When broken, it has a dull, dusky appearance, like hard dried clay, mixed with particles of coal.
      Though hard in the mine or quarry, when exposed to the fresh air, it falls into very small pieces. The most usual colour of this stone is black ; but there are several other lighter colours, down to a light brown or grey. It is easily distinguished from free stone, by its texture and colour, as well as by its other characteristics. It lies in strata of various thicknesses, though seldom so thick as the two last mentioned kinds of stone.
5. SHIVER  157
      This stratum is more frequently met with in collieries than in any other. There are many varieties of it, both in hardness and colour; but they all agree in one general characteristic. The black colour is most common ; it is called by the miners black shiver, black metal, or bleas. It is softer than metal stone, and in the mine is rather a tough than a hard substance ; it is not of a solid or compact matter, being easily separable, by the multitude of its partings, &c. into very small parts, and readily absorbing water. The substance of this stratum is an indurated bole, commonly divided into thin lamina of unequal thicknesses, which break into long small pieces when struck with force, and, on examination, they appear to be small irregular rhomboids; each of these small pieces has a polished, glassy surface; and when broken across the grain, appears of a dry leafy texture, like exceedingly fine clay. It is very friable, feels to the touch like an unctuous substance, and dissolves in air or water to a fine pinguid black clay. There are almost constantly found enclosed in its strata, lumps or nodules of iron ore, and often real beds of it.
6. COAL.
      In all places where coal is found there are generally several strata of it. Perhaps all the different kinds above mentioned will be found in some, and only one of the kinds in others; yet this one kind may be divided into many different seams or strata, by beds of shiver, or other kinds of matter interposing, so as to give it the appearance of so many separate strata.
    158 All these strata above described, with their several varieties, do not lie or bear upon each other in the order in which they are described, nor in any certain or invariable order.
      Though they be thus found very different in one colliery or district, from what they are in another with respect to their thicknesses, and the order in which they lie upon each other, yet we never meet with a stratum of any kind of matter, but what belongs to some of those above described.
      To illustrate how the various strata lie in some places, and how often the same stratum may occur betwixt the surface and the coal, we shall give the following example:
      The numbers on the left hand column refer to the classes of strata before described to which each belongs the second column contains the names of the strata, and the four numeral columns to the right hand express the thickness of each stratum in fathoms, yards, feet, and inches.
No.   Fs. Yds. Ft. In.
  Soil and gravel 0 1 1 0
  Clay mixed with loose stones 1 1 0 0
3 Coarse brown sandstone with soft
3 0 2 6
2 White post with shivery partings 1 1 0 5
5 Black shiver with iron stone balls 2 0 2 0
6 Coarse splinty coal 0 0 2 6
5 Soft grey shiver 0 1 0 7
2 Brown and grey post streaked with
1 0 2 0
5 Black shiver with beds and balls
of iron stone
0 1 2 6
4 Grey and black metal stone 0 1 1 9
2 White and brown post 1 1 0 0
5 Black and grey shiver streaked
with white
0 1 0 6
3 Soft grey sandstone with shivery
0 1 1 0
2 Yellow and white post with sandy
1 0 2 0
5 Black and dun shiver with iron
stone ball
0 1 2 6
2 White post streaked with black,
and black partings
1 0 0 6
5 Grey shiver with iron stone balls 0 1 0 9
4 Brown and black metal stone 1 1 2 6
5 Hard slaty black shiver 1 1 0 0
6 Coal, hard and fine splint 0 0 3 6
5 Soft black shiver 0 0 0 3
6 Coal, fine and clear 0 0 3 3
5 Hard black shiver 0 0 1 0
  Total Fathoms     25 0 0 0
      In this instance the species of sandstone only occurs twice, post five times, whilst the shiver occurs no less than nine times.
      To apply the foregoing observations to practice, suppose it was required to examine whether there was coal in a piece of ground adjoining to or in the neighbourhood of other collieries.
      In the first place, it is proper to be informed, at some of the adjacent collieries, of the number and kinds of strata, the order in which they lie upon each other, to what point of the horizon, and in what manner they dip, if any dikes, &c. and the course they stretch. Having learnt these circumstances, search in the ground under examination where the strata are exposed to view, and compare these with the other.
      If they be of the same kinds, and nearly correspond in order and thickness, and be lying in a regular manner, and agree by computation with the dip and rise, it may safely be concluded the coal is there, and the depth of it may be judged from the depth of the coal in the other colliery below any particular stratum. If the solid strata are not exposed to view, neither in the hills or valleys under examination, then search in the adjoining grounds ; and if the same kinds of strata are found there, as in the adjacent colliery, and there is reason, from the dip and other circumstances, to believe that they stretch through the grounds to be examined, it may be concluded that the coal is there, as well as these other strata.
   161 But it often happens that coal is to be searched for in a part of the country, at such a considerable distance from all other collieries, that by reason of the intervention of hills, valleys, unknown dikes, &c. the connection or relation of the strata with those of any other colliery cannot be traced by the methods last mentioned; in which case a more extensive view must be taken of all circumstances, than was necessary in the former; and a few general rules, founded on the foregoing observations, and conclusions drawn from them, will greatly assist in determining, sometimes with a great degree of probability, and sometimes with absolute certainty, whether coal be in any particular district of country or not.
      The first proper step, in such a case, is to take a general view of that district of country intended to be searched, in order to judge, from the outward appearance or face of the country, which particular part of the whole is most likely to contain those kind of strata favourable for the production of coal; and, consequently, such particular part being found, is the most advisable to be begun with in the examination. Though the appearance of the outward surface gives no certain or infallible rule to judge of the kinds of strata lying beneath, yet it gives a probable one ; for it is generally found, that a chain of mountains rising to a great height, and very steep on the sides, are commonly composed of strata much harder and of different kinds from those before described, wherein coal is found to lie ; and therefore unfavourable to the production of coal; and these mountainous situations are also more subject to dikes and troubles, than the lower grounds; so that if the solid strata composing them give even favourable symptoms of coal, yet the last circumstance would render the quality bad, and the quantity precarious: and on the whole it may be observed, that mountainous situations are found more favourable to the production of metals than of coal. It is likewise generally found, that those districts abounding with values, moderately rising hills, and interspersed with plains, sometimes of considerable extent, do more commonly contain coal, and those kinds of strata more favourable to its production, than either the mountainous or champaign countries; and a country so situated as this last described, especially if at some considerable distance from the mountains, ought to be the first part appointed for particular examination. Plains, or level grounds of great extent, generally situate by the sides Of rivers, or betwixt such moderate rising grounds as last described, are also very favourable to the production of coal, if the solid strata and other circumstances in the higher grounds adjoining be conformable; for it will scarcely be found in such a situation, that the strata are favourable in the rising grounds on both sides of the plain, and not so much in the space betwixt them. Though plains be so favourable in such circumstances to the production of coal, yet it is often more difficult to be discovered in such a situation, than in that before described, because the clay, soil, and other lax matter, brought off the higher grounds by rains and other accidents, have generally covered the surfaces of such plains to a considerable depth, which prevents the exploring of the solid strata there, unless they be exposed to view by digging, quarrying, or some such operation.
      That part of the district being fixed upon which abounds with moderate hills and values, and inhere it is most proper to begin the examination, the first thing to be done is, to survey all places where the solid strata are exposed to view, which are called the crops of the strata, as in precipices, hollows, &c. tracing them as accurately and gradually as circumstances will. allow, from the upper stratum, or highest part of the grounds, to the very undermost; and if they appear to be of the kinds described, it will be proper to notice their different thicknesses, the order in which they lie upon each other, the point of the horizon to which they dip or incline, the quantity of that inclination, and whether they lie in a regular state. This should be done in every part of the ground where they can be seen, observing at the same time, that if a stratum can be found in one place, which has a connection with some other in a second place, and if this other has a connection with another in a third place, then from these separate connections, the joint correspondence of the whole may be traced, and the strata, which in some places are covered, may be known by their correspondence with those which are exposed to view. 164
If the crops of all the strata cannot be seen, and if no coal be discovered by its crop appearing at the surface, yet if the strata that have been viewed consist of those kinds before described, and are found lying in a regular order, it is sufficiently probable that coal may be in that part of the district, although it lie concealed from sight by the surface of earth or other matter. Therefore, at the same time that the crops of the strata are under examination, it will be proper to take notice of all such springs of water as seem to be of a mineral nature, particularly those known by the name of iron water, which bear a mud or sediment of the colour of rust of iron, having a strong astringent taste. Springs of this kind proceed originally from those strata which contain beds of iron ore, but by reason of the tenacity of the matter of those strata, the water only disengages itself slowly from them, descending into some more open stratum below, where gathered in a body it runs out to the surface in small streams. The stratum of coal is the most general reservoir of this water for the iron stone being lodged in different kinds of shiver, and the coal commonly connected with some of them, it therefore descends into the coal, where it finds a ready passage through the open backs and cutters. Sometimes, indeed, it finds some other stratum than coal to collect and transmit it to the surface, but the difference is easily distinguished, for the ochrey matter in the water, when it comes from a stratum of coal, is of a darker rusty colour than when it proceeds from any other, and often brings with it particles and small pieces of coal therefore, wherever these two circumstances appear in a number of springs, situate in a direction from each other, answerable to the stretch or to the inclination of the strata, it may be certain the water comes off the coal, and that the coal lies in a somewhat higher situation than the apertures of the springs. There are other springs also which come off coal, and are not distinguishable from common water, otherwise than by their astringency, and their having a blue scum of an oily or glutinous nature swimming upon the surface of the water. These, in common with the others, bring out particles of coal, especially in rainy seasons, when the springs flow with rapidity. When a number of these kinds are situate from each other in the direction of the strata, as above described, or if the water does not run forth as a spring, but only forms a swamp, or an extension of stagnant water, beneath the turf; in either case, it may be depended upon that this water proceeds from a stratum of coal.
     If the stratum of coal is not exposed to view, or cannot be discovered by the first method of searching for the crop, although the appearance of the other strata be very favourable, and afford a strong probability of coal being there ; and if the last mentioned method of judging of the particular place where the crop of the coal may lie, by the springs of water issuing from it, should, from the deficiency of those springs or other circumstances, be thought equivocal, and not give a satisfactory indication of the coal, a further 166 search may be made in all places where the outward surface, or the stratum of clay or earth, is turned up, by ploughing, ditching, or digging, particularly in the lower grounds, in hollows, and by the sides of streams. These places should be strictly examined, to see if any piece of coal be intermixed with the substance of the superior lax strata ; if any such be found, and if they be pretty numerous and in detached pieces, of a firm substance, the angles perfect, or not much worn, and the texture of the coal distinguishable, it may be concluded, that the stratum of coal to which they originally did belong is at no great distance, but, in a situation higher with respect to the horizon; and if there be also found along with the pieces of coal, other mineral matter, such as pieces of shiver or free stone, this is concurrent proof that it has come only from a small distance. Though the two above mentioned methods should only have produced a strong probability, yet if this last mentioned place, where the pieces of coal, &c. are found in the clay, be in a situation lower than the springs, this circumstance, joined to the other two, amounts to little less than a moral certainty of the stratum of coal being a very little above the level of the springs. But if, on the contrary, these pieces of coal are found more sparingly interspersed in the superior stratum, and if the angles are much fretted or worn off, and very little of other kinds of mineral matter connected with them, it may then be concluded that they have come from a stratum of coal situate at a greater distance than in the former case; and by a strict search and an accurate comparison of other circumstances, that particular place may be discovered with as much certainty as the other. 167
      After the place is thus discovered, where the stratum of coal is expected to lie concealed, the next proper step to be taken is to begin digging a pit or hole there, perpendicularly down, to find the coal. If the coal has no solid strata above, and beneath it, but be found only embodied in the clay or other lax matter, it will not be there of its full thickness, nor so hard and pure as in its perfect state, when inclosed betwixt two solid strata, the uppermost called the roof, and the undermost the pavement, of the coal; in such situations therefore it becomes necessary, either to dig a new pit, or to work a mine forward until the stratum of coal be found included betwixt a solid roof and pavement, after which, it need not be expected to increase much in its thickness: yet as it grows deeper, it most likely will improve in its quality; for that part of the stratum of coal which lies near the surface, or only at a small depth, is often debased by a mixture of earth and sundry other impurities, washed down from the surface, through the backs and cutters by rains, whilst the other part of the stratum, which lies at a greater depth, is preserved by the other solid strata above it intercepting all the mud washed from the surface The above methods of investigation admit of many different cases, according to the greater or less number of favourable circumstances attending each of the modes of inquiry ; and the result accordingly admits every degree of probability, from the most distant, even up to absolute certainty. 168 In some situations, the coal will be discovered by one method alone, in others by a comparison of certain circumstances attending each method; whilst in some others all the circumstances that can be collected only lead to a certain degree of probability.
      In the last case, where the evidence is only probable, it will be more advisable to proceed in the search, by boring a hole through the solid strata than by sinking a pit, it being both cheaper and more expeditious and in every case, which does not amount to an absolute certainty, this operation is necessary to ascertain the real existence of the coal in that place.
      We shall now suppose, that having examined a certain district, situate within a few miles of the sea, or some navigable river, that all the circumstances which offer only amount to a probability of the coal being there, and that boring is necessary to ascertain it : we shall therefore describe the operation of boring to the coal then the method of cleaning it from water, commonly called winning it, and all the subsequent operations of working the coal and raising it to the surface, leading it to the river, and finally putting it on board the ships.
      The purposes for which boring is used are numerous, and some of them of the utmost importance in collieries. In collieries of great extent, although the coal be known to extend through the whole grounds, yet accidental turns, and other alterations in the dip, to which the coal is liable, render the boring of three or more holes necessary, to determine exactly to what point of the horizon it dips or inclines, before any capital operation for the winning of it can be undertaken ; because a very small error in this may occasion the loss of a great part of the coal, or at least incur a double expense in recovering it. Boring not only shows the depth at which the coal lies, but its exact thickness, its hardness, its quality; whether close burning or open burning ; and whether any foul mixture is in it or not; also the thickness, hardness, and other circumstances of all the strata bored through; and, from the quantity of water met with in the boring, some judgment may be formed of the size of an engine capable of drawing it, where an engine is necessary.
      When holes are to be bored for these purposes, they may be fixed in such a situation from each other, as to suit the places where pits are afterwards to be sunk, by which means most of the expense may be saved ; as these pits would otherwise require to be bored, when sinking, to discharge their water into the mine below. There are many other uses to which boring is applied, as will be explained hereafter.
  170 For these reasons boring is greatly practiced in England, and is brought to great perfection ; and as the operation is generally entrusted to a man of integrity, who makes it his profession, the accounts given by him of the thickness, and other circumstances, of the strata, are the most accurate imaginable, and are trusted to with great confidence; for as very few choose to take a lease of a new colliery which has not been sufficiently explored by boring, it is necessary the account should be faithful, it being the only rule to guide the land owner in letting his coal, and the tenant in taking it.
     The tools, or instruments, used in boring, are very simple. The boring rods are made of iron, from three to four feet long, and about one and a half inch square, with a screw at each end, by which they are screwed together, and other rods, added as the hole increases in depth. The chisel is about eighteen inches long, and two and a half broad at the end, which, being screwed on at the lower end of the rods, and a piece of timber put through an eye at the upper end, they are prepared for work. The operation is performed, by lifting them up a little, and letting them fall again, at the same time turning them a little round, by a continuance of which motions, a hole is fretted and worn through the hardest strata. When the chisel is blunted, it is taken out, and a scooped instrument, called a wimble, put on in its stead by which, the dust, or pulverized matter, which was worn off the stratum, in the last operation, is brought up. By these substances the borers know exactly the nature of the stratum they are boring in; and by any alteration in the working of the rods, which they are sensible of in the handling them, they perceive the least variation of the strata. The principal part of the art depends upon keeping the hole clean, and ob serving every variation of the strata with attention.
     If the coal lies in such an elevated situation, that a part of it can be drained by a level brought up from the lower grounds, then that will be the most natural method : but whether it be the most proper or not, depends upon certain circumstances. If the situation of the ground be such, that the level would be of great length, or have to come through very hard strata, and the quantity of coal it would drain, or the profits expected to be produced by that coal, should be inadequate to the expence ; in such case, some other method of winning might be more proper.
     If a level is considered the most proper, it may be begun in the manner of an open ditch, about three feet wide, and carried forward until it be about six or seven feet deep from the surface, after which it may be continued in the manner of a mine, about three feet wide, and three and a half high, through the solid strata, taking care to secure the bottom and side by timber, or building places, where the strata are not strong enough to support the incumbent weight. If the mine has to go a long way before it reach the coal, it may be necessary to sink a small pit for the convenience of taking out the stones and rubbish produced in working the mine, as well as to supply fresh air to the workmen; and if the air should afterwards turn damp, then square wooden pipes, made of deals closely jointed, called air boxes, may be fixed in the upper part of the mine from the pit bottom, all the way to the end of the mine, which will cause a sufficient circulation of fresh air for the workmen.172 Perhaps in a great length it will be found proper to sink another or more pits upon the mine, and by proceeding in this manner it may be carried forward until it arrive at the coal ; and, after driving a mine in the coal a few yards to one side, the first coal pit may be sunk.
    If a level is found impracticable, or for particular reasons unadvisable, then a steam engine, or some other machine, will be necessary, which should be fixed upon the deepest part of the coal, or at least so far towards the dip as will drain such an extent of coal as is intended to be wrought; and whether a steam engine, or other machine is used, it will be of great advantage to have a partial level brought up to the engine pit, if the situation of the ground will admit it at a small charge, in order to convey away the water without drawing it so high as the surface; for if the pit was thirty fathoms deep to the coal, and if there was a partial level, which received the water five fathoms only below the surface, the engine by this means would be enabled to draw one-sixth part more water than without it ; and if there were any feeders of water in the pit above this level, they might be conveyed into it, where they would be discharged without being drawn by the engine.
     173 The engine pit may be from seven to nine feet wide, and whether it be circular, oval, or of any other form, is not very material, provided it be sufficiently strong, though a circular form is most generally approved.
      Every method should be used to keep it as dry as possible ; and, whenever an accident happens, it should be repaired before any other operation is proceeded in, lest an additional one follows.
      The first operation, after sinking the engine pit, is the working or driving a mine in the coal, and sinking the first coal pit.
      The situation of the first coal pit should be a little to the rise of the engine pit, that the water which collects there may not obstruct the working of the coals every time the engine stops; it should not exceed the distance of thirty or forty yards, because when the first mine is to be driven a long way, it becomes both difficult and expensive. After the pit is thus sunk to the coal, the next consideration should be the best method of working it.
      The miner, when he begins his work, first digs with his pick (a light instrument for hewing coal) as far as he can into the bottom of the seam or stratum; he then forces down the great pieces of coal, by a wedge and mallet, taking care to leave, at proper intervals, pillars for supporting the roof. The coal is often wrought in this manner to the limits of the mine, when these pillars, or so many of them as can be got, are taken out by a second working, and the roof and other solid strata is permitted to fall down and fill up the excavation.
    174  The- same mode of working is pursued in most places, differing only according to circumstances.
      If the roof and pavement are both strong, as well as the coal, and the pit about thirty fathoms deep, then two-thirds or three-fourths may be taken away at the first working, and one-third or one-fourth left in pillars. If tender, it will require a larger proportion to be left in pillars, probably one-third or nearly one-half.
       There is an overman, whose office it is to go through the pit to examine the places where the men have wrought, to measure their work, and to see that the pit is free from inflammable vapour. There is also a deputy-overman, to superintend the pillars of coal that are left, and to set up props or build walls where the roof is loose and threatens to fall. The onsetter's business is to hang the corves (baskets made of hazel rods) upon the rope, to be drawn up the shaft or pit.
      We shall next mention the methods of bringing the coals from the rooms and other workings to the pit bottom. When the stratum of coal is of a sufficient thickness, and has a moderate rise and dip, the coals are most advantageously brought out by horses, from the hewers to the shaft, in a cart or basket placed upon a sledge. A horse by this means will bring out from four to eight cwt.-of coals at once, according to the ascent or descent.
      If the coal he not of such a height as to admit of horses to draw it out by sledges, it is commonly brought out on a small four wheeled carriage called a tram, pulled by a boy before, and pushed on by another behind.
      175 When the coals are brought to the bottom of the shaft, the baskets are hooked on to a chain at the end of a rope, by the onsetter, and are drawn up the pit to the surface. This is now generally done by the help of a steam engine, placed near the mouth of the pit, though till lately they were drawn up by horses. After the coals are got to the surface, they are taken a short distance and discharged into waggons, by means of a grated spout, which allows the small coals to pass through it, whilst the large ones fall into the waggons. Boys and women attend to throw aside the pyrites, or, as they are technically called, brasses, which are sold to the copperas manufacturers.
      All collieries are liable to an accident of a very dangerous nature, called a creep or sit.
When the pillars of coal are left so small as to fail or yield under the weight of the superior strata, or when the pavement of the coal is so soft as to permit the pillars to sink into it, which sometimes happens by the great weight that lies upon them, in either case the solid stratum above the coal falls and crushes the pillars to pieces, and closes up a great extent of the working, or probably the whole colliery. If the creep begin in the rise of the colliery, it is more difficult to stop it from proceeding to the dip, than it is to stop it from going to the rise, when it begins in a contrary part.

      There are two great evils to which coal mines are subject, hydrogen gas, called by the workmen, firedamp, by the explosion of which many lives are lost; and carbonic acid gas, technically called choak-damp, which is not so fatal as the former.
      Hydrogen gas is principally generated by the contact of pyrites with water in some of the old workings of the colliery, which have been neglected, and are not sufficiently ventilated. It there accumulates, until discovered by the occasional visit of some of the overmen, whose office it is to examine the old workings, commonly called wastes. If practicable, it is carried away by proper ventilation; but we are sorry to add, that it not unfrequently causes the death of many of the miners, by being set fire to by their lights, for want of due caution. On these occasions the miners throw themselves with their faces to the ground, to avoid the return of the blast, as there is more danger to be apprehended from the vacuum formed by the total consumption of the inflammable gas, than from any effect the fire has upon them.      
      Indeed it rarely happens, after an explosion, that the men are much burnt, as they suffer more by the violent concussion of atmospheric air rushing into the workings, to fill up the vacuum, than by the fire. After an accident of this kind, it is generally considered dangerous to enter the mine for some days, on which account it is to be feared that many lives are lost, which immediate assistance would save.
      The best means of preventing accidents of this nature, is to pay due attention to the state of the old workings, and to cause a thorough ventilation by the methods usually adopted; these are as follows:
      The air of a coal mine is put in motion by means of a large furnace near the edge of one of the shafts, inclosed in a covered building which surrounds the whole mouth of the shaft, and provided with a large chimney similar in appearance to a glass-house. The heated air, thus ascending through the chimney, is succeeded by cold air from the shaft, which in its turn is succeeded by air from the lowest part of the mine. The whole is thus successively removed, and its place supplied by air which finds its way from above, through another communicating shaft open to the day. The certainty of this operation has evidently no dependence on the depth of the mine, its extent, or its form. The brisk current thus produced below naturally takes the most direct course betwixt the two shafts.. The ventilation on each side is therefore accomplished by means of another contrivance. A continued communication is formed betwixt the two shafts in any required direction, by opening the proper avenues and closing all others. A continued current is sometimes made to pass in this manner for twelve or eighteen miles.
    178 Choak-damp is rarely attended with any ill effects, and is easily discovered by extinguishing a candle. The safest method of exploring collieries, subject to this evil, is to walk as erect as the workings will allow; for choak-damp being heavier than atmospheric air, it of course occupies the lower part of the mine. It is more difficult to get quit of this gas by ventilation than fire-damp, as the latter ascends from its being lighter than atmospheric air, whilst the other, by its gravity, is forced upwards with great difficulty.
     It is not exactly determined by what means choakdamp is generated in coal mines, but it is generally supposed to proceed from the putrefaction of vegetable substance.
      Most of the large collieries send their coals to the London market; and as the quantity is generally very great, it is a material object to have them shipped at as low a rate as possible. Carts being much too expensive, they are generally conveyed in waggons upon railways, laid with timber or cast metal, by which means one horse will draw near three tons at a time, when in a cart not above half a ton would be drawn. The first thing to be done in making a railway is to level the ground in such a manner as to take off all sudden ascents and descents, to effect which, it is sometimes necessary to cut through hills and to raise an embankment to carry the road through vales. The road is formed of pieces of timber about six feet long, and six inches in diameter, which are laid across it, being eighteen or twenty-four inches distant from each other.
   179 Upon these sleepers, other pieces of timber, called rails, of four or five inches square, are laid in a lateral direction, four feet distant from each other; the waggon heels are constructed with a groove to correspond with the rails, and thus run with very little friction; this latter circumstance is also materially lessened by covering the rails with cast metal, which also prevents the wood from being worn.
An improved method of making a railway, intirely of cast metal, has been lately introduced. It is found to cause less friction than the other, as it is smoother, and does not require so large a surface for the wheel to run upon.
     The body of the waggon resembles a mill-hopper, but is rather wider in proportion at the bottom. The wheels are of cast metal and very low. The whole height of the waggon upon its wheels is nearly six feet, and it contains' fifty-three cwt. of coals, easily drawn by one horse even up hill, but in descending it requires no assistance, except a brake, technically called a convoy, to regulate its motion. On its arrival at the staith, which is always elevated considerably above the river, its contents are discharged into a spout, by forcing back a bolt in the waggon bottom, which is attached to the body by hinges.
  180  The staith has usually two or three spouts for loading vessels. The railway is continued along the staith to each of them, and it has generally other outlets for discharging coals upon the wharf below, when the trade is not brisk. This, however, is never done if it can be avoided, as it causes great additional labour, and breaks the coals. The best collieries indeed have never occasion thus to warehouse their coals, and consequently have no covers to their staiths.
      IN giving a description of a descent into a coal mine, we shall select that, which is most favorable for viewing its underground workings, and which can be entered with the greatest ease and safety, East Kenton Colliery, the property of Messrs Knowsley and Chapman ; and as it must undoubtedly be very interesting to every one, and more particularly to a scientific man, whether a mechanic or physiologist, to see the extensive operations of working coal, performed in so confined a situation, we shall endeavour to point out, for the convenience of both, a method by which they may survey subterraneous regions with very little inconvenience.
     Having previously obtained permission of the viewer, or some other person concerned in the colliery, who will give you any directions that may be necessary, we would recommend you to provide yourself with a small hand lantern, (as more convenient to be carried than a candle, stuck on a piece of clay, which is usually practiced) a light being necessary for each person. 182 It would also be advisable to take with you a change of dress, as, from the dirt you are likely to contract in the mine, you may feel uncomfortable without removing, at least, your upper clothes. Strong boots, to keep the feet dry, and an old hat, are also necessary. Being thus prepared, proceed to the staith, which is by the river side, about four miles above Newcastle, a pleasant excursion by water, when the tide suits. There, some of the men, who know of your coming, will assist in seating you on a set of small, empty coal waggons, capable of containing two persons each, seven of which are drawn along a railway by one horse. As soon as you are placed, with your candles lighted, you set off at full speed, with a boy in the first waggon, for your charioteer, into a tunnel or subterraneous passage six feet high, about the same in breadth, and three miles in length. You will find it an advantage to have one of the men for a guide, to point out any thing, that may appear striking on your passage to the pit. It is particularly necessary to guard against putting your hands suddenly out of the waggon, as the tunnel in most places is only wide enough to admit the waggon and horses,, and you are of course by doing so in danger of receiving injury ; but if you sit undisturbed, you ascend very smoothly and pleasantly up the tunnel, on an inclined plane, till you arrive at the place where the men are working the coals. At your first entrance into this tunnel you are struck with the noise of the waggons, which being fastened with chains to each other, and going at the rate of ten miles an hour, make a reverberating noise resembling thunder. 183 The passage is in general hewn out of solid rock, composed of what miners call a metal stone, -a sort of schistus. Where there is no rock, it is arched with brick or stone.
    The water from the pit runs down the side of the railway to the river. The waggons are deep and square; Wider at the top, than at the bottom, and are fast at all sides. The bottom has hinges, and can be let down to discharge the coals, of which these waggons contain about three bolls each. At intervals there are double railways; and, where you come to one of these, the boy stops his horse, and a dead silence ensues, forming a striking contrast to the noise you have just heard. After calling aloud, he listens to hear if any loader waggons are coming down, that they may there pass each other. The candle of the boy coming down appears like a star at a distance, through the gloom, and has a very pleasing effect, as it gradually approaches.
   When he is past, your driver renews his speed, until he reaches the next interval, when he repeats his call, and should no answer be heard in return, he proceeds. If, by the negligence of the boys, the waggons should meet, where there is no double railway, the boy with the empty waggons unlooses his horse, which is taught to turn round, and force the waggons back with its breast, until they reach the double part. The full ones having passed you, you set forward again.
    On the sides of the tunnel you will observe several fungi of a pure white, which, by the heat of your hand, or exposure to the open atmosphere, dissolve into water. 184
   The air up the tunnel is cold, but perfectly pure. Your approach to the workings is announced by a sensible warmness. You alight from your waggons, to view the different operations to which your guide will conduct you.
    In the upper seam or stratum, the coal is not much wrought on account of its inferior quality. Here you will see the stables for the horses; the steam engine for raising the coals from the lower seam, and the ventilating furnace, by which the impure vapours are drawn from the windings of the pit. Here you will also be shown on the roof of one of the lateral openings of this level, a variety of curious specimens of grasses, ferns, vetches, &c. impressed upon a sort of blue, slatey stone. The different plants are remarkably distinct, particularly the small vetch, the fern, and rib grass. There is also in one part the trunk of a tree, many blocks of which have been taken out to form stone seats in a neighbouring garden. As far as the stone has been cut, the tree has been traced even to its smallest branches, and the roughness of the bark is still preserved in the stone. Th whole of the stratum is one uninterrupted continuation of these impressions of vegetables, and it evidently appears, that in some convulsion of the earth, the sward has been buried here, and covered with a soft clay, which has thus received and preserved the impression. This stratum is nearly horizontal, and is 112 yards from the surface. 185 In east Kenton colliery there are three shafts or perpendicular openings, for raising the coals. The first is the pit at the day, near the village of Kenton; it is circular ; fifty-six fathoms deep; and at present only used for delivering coals for sale in Newcastle. The coals are drawn up in baskets. The bottom of this pit is on a line with the railway you came up from the river. The second shaft is eighteen and a half fathoms deep, and at a short distance from the bottom of the first. It is square and just admits the waggons, which are drawn up and down by the steam engine. The third shaft is seven fathoms deep.
   We should recommend you to descend the second. shaft, as there you will see the workings in every state. You are let gently down in one of the waggons, and are then drawn a short way as before, until you come to some of the openings, where the men are hewing the coal. These are made in different directions, and are higher or lower, according to the thickness of the stratum of coal. In general, in this pit they are about four feet; of course you have to stoop in going along them, and in some places you have even to creep to the place, where the miner has formed a sort of chamber around him. This is performed by undermining a mass of coal with a sharp pick, and then forcing it down with wedges. It is conveyed by boys in baskets to the waggon, which, as soon as full, is taken to the shaft, and conveyed to the upper workings. When seven of them are collected, they are drawn along the railway to the staith, and discharged into keels, or barges, ready to convey them on board of ships.
186   We should not recommend you to descend the third shaft, as there is little variation in the mode of working. You will therefore reascend the second shaft in an empty waggon; and, if you wish, you may be taken up the first shaft in a basket, to the day, in about two minutes, and be landed near the village of Kenton, which is between two and three miles north-west of Newcastle. If you do not like this mode of conveyance, you may return as you came, by the tunnel.
   With respect to the danger or difficulty of descending into a coal pit, we have to remark, that there is very little, if ordinary prudence be observed. The danger is more in apprehension, than reality. East Kenton pit is so much more easy of access than others,, from its being the only one, which you can enter by a tunnel or railway, that it has been visited by many ladies. It is usual to recompence the waggon boy, and any of the men to whom you give any trouble, with a few shillings each. As to the time of visiting the pit, it is proper to be there so soon in the morning that may see it before they shift, that is, when a fresh of men come to work, usually at twelve o'clock.
The whole may be viewed in four or five hours.
Akenheads, Printers.
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